واکنش عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و غلظت عناصر غذایی زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L) به همزیستی با گونه‌های قارچ میکوریزا تحت تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

2 واحد شهرکرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان، شهرکرد، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

4 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه پیام نور زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

به­ منظور بررسی تأثیر همزیستی میکوریزا در سطوح مختلف تنش شوری بر رشد، عملکرد و غلظت عناصر غذایی تجمع یافته در گیاه زیره سبز، آزمایشی به ­صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک ­های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زابل در سال 1392 انجام شد. تیمارها شامل آبیاری با آب شور در سه سطح (1 [شاهد]، 5 و 10 دسی­ زیمنس بر متر) به ­عنـوان عـامل اصلـی و همـــزیستی با سه گونه ­ی میکوریزا (Glomus intraradices,hoiG. ،G.etanicatum) و بدون قارچ به عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. تاثیر تنش شوری بر تمام خصوصیات مورد مطالعه به جز تعداد چتر در بوته معنی ­دار بود، به ­طوری­ که تنش شدید (10 دسی­ زیمنس بر متر) وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در چتر، فسفر، کلسیم و منیزیم دانه را به ­ترتیب 17.71 ، 11.40، 14.95، 46.08 و 13.60 درصد نسبت به شاهد کاهش داد. با کاربرد قارچ‌های میکوریزا، بیشترین تعداد دانه در چتر و فسفر دانه به ­ترتیب با 28.4 و 54.4 % افزایش نسبت به عدم شاهد در گونه G. intraradices و تعداد چتر در بوته با میانگین 9.7 عدد در گونه G. etanicatum حاصل شد. آغشته کردن گیاه با گونه­ های قارچ­ میکوریزا بر میزان کلسیم، منیزیم و وزن هزار دانه تاثیر معنی­ داری نداشت. اثر متقابل میکوریزا و تنش شوری بر غلظت سدیم، پتاسم، و نسبت Na/K و همچنین عملکرد دانه و تعداد دانه در بوته معنی ­دار بود. در بین سه گونه قارچ مورد استفاده در شرایط تنش شدید (10 دسی ­زیمنس بر متر)، گونه G. intraradices عملکرد دانه و تعداد دانه در بوته را به­ ترتیب 28.5 و 47.6 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد. لذا، می‌توان چنین بیان داشت که همزیستی میکوریزایی اغلب منجر به بهبود حرکت آب به داخل گیاه میزبان می‌گردد و گیاهان تحت رژیم‌های مختلف شوری وابستگی زیادی به میکوریزا جهت افزایش عملکرد دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of Yield, Yield Components and Nutrient Concentration of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) to Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Salt Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Bijhani 1
  • P. Yadollahi 2
  • M. Heydari 3
  • M. Ghanavati 4
1 MSc. Graduated of Agroecology, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran
3 MSc. Graduated of Agronomy, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
4 Faculty Member of Payam Noor University, Zahedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and salinity stress on the growth, yield and nutrient concentrations of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), an experiment was carried out as split plot in a completely randomized block design at Zabol University Research Farm in 2013. Treatments consisted of three salinity stresses: 1 (control), 5 and 10 dSm-1, was considered as the main treatments, and four levels of mycorrhizal inoculation (Glomus intraradices, G. etanicatum, G. hoi and non-inoculation as control) as the sub-treatments. The effects of salinity on all traits under study, except umbers per plant, were significant, and severe stress (10 dSm-1) reduced 100 seed weight, number of seeds per umbel, concentrations of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in seeds by 17.71, 11.4, 14.95, 46.08, 13.60 %, respectively, as compared to the control. The numbers of seeds per umbel and phosphorus concentration in seed were highest in G. intraradices with 28.4 and 54.4%, respectively as compared to control and umbels per plant was also maximum (9.7) by using G. etanicatum. Mycorrhizal inoculation did not have significant effect on calcium and magnesium concentrations in seeds and 1000 seed weight. However mycorrhiza × salinity stress interaction was significant about concentration of sodium, potassium and sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K) in seeds, as well as seed yield and seed number per plant. Among the species of mycorrhiza, applied G. intraradices had better performance in severe salinity (10 dS-1) and increased seed yield and seed number per plant by 28.5 and 47.6%, respectively in comparision control. The results suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation improves water absorption by plant. Yield increases of plants under different salinity regimes dependent on their mycorrhizal inoculation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Medicinal plant
  • Stress
  • Symbiosis
  • yield

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