عنوان مقاله [English]
Soil compaction is one of the most important limiting factor for normal crop growth, because it reduces absorption by the plant. Application of organic fertilizers in agricultural soils can reduce the detrimental effects of soil compaction on plant growth and also supply some nutrients to plant. Thus, a factorial experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications and 14 treatments to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizers in mitigating soil compaction. The first factor in this study was the source and amount of organic fertilizer at seven levels (control, farmyard manure, sewage sludge compost and municipal solid waste compost and each of organic fertilizers at two levels of 15 and 30 g/kg of soil). The second factor was soil compaction at two levels (bulk density of 1.2 and 1.7 g/cm3). To perform this experiment, 10 kg of dry soil was poured into special PVC pots and then seeds of single cross 704 corn were planted. At the end of the growth period, the corn shoot was harvested and concentrations of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined by dry ashing method. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Pb in the shoot, related to the different treatments, were negligible. Concentrations of P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn in the corn shoot were increased significantly by application of farmyard manure, sewage sludge compost and municipal solid waste compost at both levels of soil compaction. However, Na concentration of shoot did not change significantly. Soil compaction significantly reduced P, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations of corn shoot, but it affected concentrations of Na and K significantly. Application of organic fertilizers and increasing their levels reduced the negative effects of soil compaction on nutrients uptake by corn plant. This study showed that to improve forage corn nutrition, application of 15 or 30 g of farmyard manure or sewage sludge compost or municipal solid waste compost per kg of soil can be recommended to similar compacted and non-compacted conditions.
Abbasi, M., N. Najafi, N. Aliasgharzad, and S. Oustan. 2012. Effects of soil water conditions and organic and chemical fertilizers on growth characteristics and water use efficiency of rice in an alkaline non-calcareous soil. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture. 3(11): 1-17. (In Persian).
Ahmadinezhad, R. 2012. Integrated effect of organic fertilizers and nitrogen on nutrition, growth and yield of wheat(Triticum aestivum cv. Alvand).M.Sc.Thesis, University of Tabriz. 121 Pages.
Akanni, D.I., and S.O. Ojeniyi. 2007. Effect of different levels of poultry manure on soil physical properties, nutrients status, growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Research Journal of Agronomy. 1(1): 1-4.
Allen, R.G., L.S. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration guideline for computing crop water requirements, irrigation and drainage. FAO, Rome, Italy, 300 Pages.
Baran, A., G. Cayci, C. Kutuk, and R. Hartman. 2001. The effect of grape marc as growing medium on growth of hypostases plant. Bioresource Technology. 78: 103-106.
Behbood, M., A. Golchin, and H. Besharati. 2012. The Effect of soil compaction on tuber yield and quality and uptake of nutrients by potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.). Journal of Water and Soil, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. 26(1): 11-19. (In Persian).
Coker, E.J., and P.J. Matthews. 1983. Metals in sewage sludge and their potential effects in agriculture. Water Science, complexing of zinc and copper in displaced solution from calcareous soils. Soil Science Society of American Proceeding. 30: 723-726.
Eghball, B., D. Ginting, and J.E. Gilley. 2004. Residual effect of manure and compost application on maize production and soil properties. Agronomy Journal. 96: 442-447.
Fageria, N.K. 2009. The use of nutrients in crop plants. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.
Gee, G.W., and D. Or. 2002. Particle-size analysis. pp. 255-295. In: Dane, J.H. and G.C. Topp (eds). Methods of soil analysis. Part 4. Physical methods. Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI. USA.
Grzesiak, M.T. 2009. Impact of soil compaction on root architecture, leaf water status, gas exchange and growth of maize and triticale seedlings. Plant Root. 3: 10-16.
Gupta, P.K. 2000. Soil, plant, water, and fertilizer analysis. Agrobios. New Delhi, India.
Hasanpour, R. 2013. Combined effect of soil salinity and compaction on some corn growth indices. M. Sci. Thesis, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. (In Persian).
Havlin J.L., J.D. Beaton, S.L. Tisdale, and W.L. Nelson. 1999. Soil fertility and fertilizers: an introduction to nutrient management. Sixth Ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. USA.
Hazelton, P.A., and B.W. Murphy. 2007. Interpreting soil test results: what do all the numbers mean? CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Imam, Y. 2004. Grain farming. Second Edition, Shiraz University Press, Iran. (In Persian).
Ishaq, M., A. Hassan, M. Saeed, M. Ibrahim, and R. Lal. 2001. Subsoil compaction effects on crops in Punjab, Pakistan: 1. Soil physical properties and crop yield. Soil and Tillage Research. 1570: 1-9.
Javaheri, M.A., N. Rashidi, and A. Baghizadeh. 2005. Influence of organic farm yard manure, potassium and boron on quantity and quality of sugar beet in Bardsir region. Journal of Sugar Beet. 21(1): 43-56. (In Persian).
Jones, B.J. 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis. CRC Press, USA.
Kalbasi, M., G.J. Racz, and L.A. Lewen-Rudgers. 1978. Reaction products and solubility of applied zinc compounds in some Manitoba soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 125: 55-64.
Kazemzadeh, M., S.H. Peighambardoust, and N. Najafi. 2014. Improving the nutrients concentrations of wheat flour cv. Alvand by integrated application of organic and nitrogen fertilizers. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research. 44(4): 405-420. (In Persian).
Khaleel, R., K.R. Reddy, and M.R. Overcash. 1991. Changes in soil physical properties due to organic waste applications: A review. Journal of Environmental Quality. 10: 133-141.
Knudsen, D., G.A. Peterson, and P.F. Pratt. 1982. Lithium, sodium, and potassium. pp. 225-246. In: In: Page A.L., R.H. Miller, and D.R. Keeny (eds). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Soil Science Society of America, Madison. WI. USA.
Lindsay, W.L., and W.A. Norvell. 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 42: 421-428.
Lipiec J., T. Ishioka, A. Szustak, J. Pietrusiewicz, and W. Stepniewski. 1996. Effects of soil compaction and transient oxygen deficiency on growth, water use and stomata resistance in maize. Soil and Plant Science. 46: 186-191.
Mahmoudi S., N.Najafi and A. Reyhanitabar 2015. Effect of soil moisture and sewage-sludge compost on some soil chemical properties and alfalfa forage macronutrients concentrations in greenhouse conditions. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture. 6(22): 37-55. (In Persian).
Malakouti, M.J. 1997. Sustainable agriculture and increasing of yield with fertilizer use in Iran. Agriculture Nashr Amuzesh, Publisher. (In Persian).
Malakouti, M.J., and M.N. Gheybi. 1997. Determination of nutrient critical levels in strategic crops and correct fertilizer recommendation in Iran. Agricultural Education Publication, Karaj. (In Persian).
Marjovy, A.R., and M.R. Jahadakbar. 2011. Effect of municipal compost and sewage sludge on soil chemical characteristics, quality and quantity of sugar beet in Rudasht-Esfahan. Journal of Sugar Beet, 27(1): 67-83. (In Persian).
Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press. New York. 890 Pages.
Mclean, E.O. 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. pp. 199-224. In: Page A.L., R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeny (eds). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. USA.
Miransari, M., H.A. Bahrami, F. Rejali, and M.J. Malakouti. 2009. Effects of soil compaction and arbuscular mycoorrhiza on corn (Zea mays L.) nutrient uptake. Soil and Tillage Research. 103: 282-290.
Nadian, H., S.E. Smith, A.M. Alston, and R.S. Murray. 1998. Effect of soil compaction on growth and P uptake by Trifolium subtteraneum subtteraneum colonized by four species of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist. 139: 155-165.
Najafi N., and M. Abbasi. 2013. Effects of soil water conditions, sewage sludge, poultry manure and chemical fertilizers on macronutrients concentrations in rice plant. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. 4 (5): 1066-1077.
Najafi, N., S. Mardomi, and S. Oustan. 2012. Influence of waterlogging, sewage sludge and manure on the heavy metals concentrations in roots and shoots of sunflower in a loamy sand soil. Journal of Science and Technology Agriculture and Natural Resources-Water and Soil. 15(58): 139-157. (In Persian).
Najafi, N., S. Mardomi, and S. Oustan. 2013. The effect of waterlogging sewage sludge and manure on selected macronutrients and sodium uptake by sunflower plant in a loamy sand soil. Journal of Water and Soil, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. 26(3): 619-636. (In Persian).
Nazari, M.A., H. Shariatmadari, M. Afyuni, M. Mobli, and Sh. Rahili. 2006. Effect of industrial sewage-sludge and effluents application on concentration of some elements and dry matter yield of wheat, barley and corn. Journal of Science and Technology Agriculture and Natural Resources. 10(3): 97-111. (In Persian).
Nelson, D.W., and L.E. Sommers. 1982. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. pp. 539-579. In: Page A.L., R.H. Miller, and D.R. Keeny (eds). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Soil Science Society of America, Madison. WI. USA.
Olsen, S.R., and L.E. Sommers. 1982. Phosphorus. Pp. 403-430. In: Page A.L., R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeny (eds). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Soil Science Society of America, Madison. WI. USA.
Pinton, R., Z. Varanini, and P. Nannipieri. 2007. The Rhizosphere: biochemistry and organic substances at the soil-plant interface. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.
Rahman, M.H., M. Hara, and S. Hoque. 2005. Growth and nutrient uptake of grain legumes as affected by induced compaction in Andisols. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology. 7(5): 740-743.
Rahman, M.H., S. Kawai, S. Alam, S. Hoque, A. Tanaka, and M. Ito. 1999. Effect of soil compaction on plant growth in an Andisol. Japan Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 4: 129-35.
Rasouli, F., and M. Maftoun. 2010. Residual effects of two organic matters with or without nitrogen on growth and chemical composition of wheat and some soil chemical properties. Journal of Water and Soil. 24 (2): 262-273. (In Persian).
Reintam, E., and J. Kuht. 2003. Changes in nutrient uptake and cellular fluid pH of spring barley as affected by soil compaction. Indian Journal Plant Physiology, Special Issue. Pp. 522-526.
Reuter D.J., and J.B. Robinson. 2008. Plant analysis: An interpretation manual. Second ed. CSIRO Publishing, Australia.
Rezaenejad, Y., and M. Afyuni. 2001. Effect of organic matter on soil chemical properties and corn yield and elemental uptake. Journal of Science and Technology Agriculture and Natural Resources. 4(4): 19-29. (In Persian).
Richards, L.A. 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. US Salinity Laboratory Staff, Agricultural Handbook No 60. USDA, USA.
Schnurr-Putz, S., G. Guggenberger, and K. Kusell. 2006. Compaction of forest soil by logging machinery favours occurrence of prokaryotes. FEMS Microbiological Ecology. 58: 503–516.
Sharifi, M., M.A. Afyuni, and H. Khoshgoftarmanesh. 2011. Effects of sewage sludge, compost and cow manure on availability of soil Fe and Zn and their uptake by corn, alfalfa and tagetes flower. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources-Water and Soil. 15(56): 141-154. (In Persian).
Smethurst, C.F., T. Garnett, and S. Shabala. 2005. Nutritional and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of Lucerne (Medicago sativa) to waterlogging and subsequent recovery. Plant and Soil. 270: 31-45.
Smith, S.R. 1992. Sewage sludge and refuse composts as peat alternative for conditioning impoverished soils. Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 67: 703-716.
Soane, B.D. 1990. The role of organic matter in soil compatibility: A review of some practical aspects, Soil & Tillage Research. 16: 179-202.
Sommers, L.E. 1977. Chemical composition of sewage sludges and analysis of their potential use as fertilizers. Journal of Environmental Quality. 6(6): 225-231.
Sumner, M.E. 2000. Beneficial use of effluents, wastes and biosolids. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 31: 1701-1715.
Vaseghi, S., M. Afyuni, H. Shariatmadari, and M. Mobli. 2005. Effect of sewage sludge on some macronutrients concentration and soil chemical properties. Journal of Water and Waste Water, 16(53): 15-22. (In Persian).
Waling, I., W.V. Vark, V.J.G. Houba, and J.J. Van der lee. 1989. Soil and plant analysis, a series of syllabi. Part 7. Plant analysis procedures. Wageningen Agriculture University, the Netherland.
Waseem, R., Y. Sohail, N. Abid, R. Khalid, and H. Iqbal. 2005. Subsoil compaction effects on soil properties, nutrient uptake and yield of maize fodder (Zea mays L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 37(2): 933-940.
Westerman, R.L. 2005. Soil testing and plant analysis. Third Edition, Issue 3 of Soil Science Society of America Book Series. SSSA, USA. 784 Pages.
Wolf, A., M. Watson, and N. Wolf. 2003. Digestion and dissolution methods for P, K, Ca, Mg and trace elements. In: Peters et al., (eds). Recommended methods of manure analysis. Cooperative Extension Publishing, University of Wisconsin. USA.
Zeytin, S, and A. Baran. 2003. Influences of composted hazelnut husk on some physical properties of soils. Bioresource of Technology. 88: 241-244.