تغییرات غلظت برخی عناصر در علوفه ذرت (Zea mays L) تحت تأثیر منبع و مقدار کودهای آلی و فشردگی خاک

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

فشردگی خاک‌ یکی از مهم‌ترین محدودیت‌های رشد گیاهان زراعی است که باعث کاهش جذب عناصر غذایی به‌وسیله گیاه می‌شود. استفاده از کودهای آلی در خاک‌های کشاورزی می‌تواند اثرهای مضر فشردگی خاک بر رشد گیاه را کاهش داده و بخشی از مواد غذایی مورد نیاز گیاه را نیز تأمین کند. برای بررسی اثر تلفیقی مواد آلی و فشردگی خاک بر جذب برخی عناصر به‌وسیله ذرت، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با دو عامل و سه تکرار انجام شد. عامل اول منبع و مقدار کود آلی شامل شاهد، کود دامی، کمپوست لجن فاضلاب و کمپوست پسماند شهری و هر یک از کودهای آلی در دو سطح 15 و 30 گرم در کیلوگرم خاک و عامل دوم فشردگی خاک (چگالی ظاهری خاک) در دو سطح 1.2 و 1.7 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب بودند. برای انجام آزمایش، 10 کیلوگرم خاک داخل گلدان‌های ویژه‌ای از جنس پی‌وی‌سی ریخته و سپس بذرهای ذرت رقم سینگل کراس 704 کاشته شد. در پایان دوره رشد، شاخساره (اندام­ های هوایی) برداشت و غلظت­ های فسفر، پتاسیم، سدیم، آهن، روی، منگنز، کادمیم و سرب آن به‌روش خشک‌سوزانی تعیین شدند. نتایج نشان داد که غلظت­ های کادمیم و سرب شاخساره ذرت در تیمارهای مختلف ناچیز بودند. غلظت­ های فسفر، پتاسیم، آهن، روی و منگنز شاخساره ذرت با مصرف کود دامی، کمپوست لجن فاضلاب و کمپوست پسماند شهری در هر دو سطـح فشردگی خاک به‌طور معنی­ داری افزایش یافتند ولی غلظت سدیم شاخساره تغییر معنی­ داری نکرد. فشرده شدن خاک غلظت فسفر، آهن، روی و منگنز شاخساره ذرت را به‌طور معنی­ داری کاهش داد ولی بر غلظت سدیم و پتاسیم شاخساره اثر معنی­ داری نداشت. مصرف کودهای آلی و افزایش مقدار مصرف آنها سبب کاهش اثرهای منفی فشردگی خاک بر جذب عناصر غذایی به‌وسیله ذرت شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که برای بهبود تغذیه ذرت علوفه‌ای، مصرف 15 یا 30 گرم کمپوست لجن فاضلاب یا کود دامی یا کمپوست پسماند شهری بر کیلوگرم خاک می‌تواند در شرایط مشابه (فشرده و غیرفشرده) توصیه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Differential Concentrations of some Nutrient Element in Forage of Corn (Zea mays L.) as Affected by Organic Fertilizers and Soil Compaction

نویسندگان [English]

  • N. Najafi 1
  • A. Mohammadnejad 2
1 Associate Professor, Soil Science and Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Former Graduate Student, Soil Science and Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil compaction is one of the most important limiting factor for normal crop growth, because it reduces absorption by the plant. Application of organic fertilizers in agricultural soils can reduce the detrimental effects of soil compaction on plant growth and also supply some nutrients to plant. Thus, a factorial experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications and 14 treatments to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizers in mitigating soil compaction. The first factor in this study was the source and amount of organic fertilizer at seven levels (control, farmyard manure, sewage sludge compost and municipal solid waste compost and each of organic fertilizers at two levels of 15 and 30 g/kg of soil). The second factor was soil compaction at two levels (bulk density of 1.2 and 1.7 g/cm3). To perform this experiment, 10 kg of dry soil was poured into special PVC pots and then seeds of single cross 704 corn were planted. At the end of the growth period, the corn shoot was harvested and concentrations of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined by dry ashing method. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Pb in the shoot, related to the different treatments, were negligible. Concentrations of P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn in the corn shoot were increased significantly by application of farmyard manure, sewage sludge compost and municipal solid waste compost at both levels of soil compaction. However, Na concentration of shoot did not change significantly. Soil compaction significantly reduced P, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations of corn shoot, but it affected concentrations of Na and K significantly. Application of organic fertilizers and increasing their levels reduced the negative effects of soil compaction on nutrients uptake by corn plant. This study showed that to improve forage corn nutrition, application of 15 or 30 g of farmyard manure or sewage sludge compost or municipal solid waste compost per kg of soil can be recommended to similar compacted and non-compacted conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • corn
  • manure
  • Municipal solid waste compost
  • nutrients
  • Sewage sludge
  • Soil compaction

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