Impact of some Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence Characteristics of Black Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), Ground Cherry (Physalis divaricata) and Curly Dock (Rumex crispus)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Prof. Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Assistant Prof. Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

3 Ph.D. Student of Weed Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


To understand germination and emergence characteristics of black henbane, ground cherry and curly dock a laboratory experiment, based on randomized complete block design with four replications, was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2012. Treatments were temperature ranges (5/15, 10/20, 15/25, 15/30 and 20/35 ° C night / day) and different levels of salinity (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of NaCl). The effect of pH adjusted to 5-9 by using acid buffer solution. Seeds were planted at different depth (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 cm) to study their effects on seedling emergence. Results showed that black henbane exhibited highest germination percentage at 25/15 diurnal tempratures, with 86.50 and 60.50 respectivly for daylight and complete darkness. Germination of ground cherry was highest (93%) at 10/20 diurnal temprature and 41% in complete darkness. Highest germination percentage for curly dock at diurnal temperatures of 20/10, 25/15 and 30/20 with light / dark regime of constant darkness was abserved. The seeds at diurnal temprature of 35/25 in both light regimes did not germinate. Increasing salinity reduced germination. Increasing the osmotic potential, also reduced germination significantly. Highest germination percentage of black henbane (97%) was observed at pH 7, and lowest germination (17%) at pH 9. Increasing planting depth reduced seedling emergence significantly. Germination percentages of ground cherry and curly dock at pH 6 and 7 were highest (97% and 96% respectively) and lowest 26 and 25 % respectively at pH 9.


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