عنوان مقاله [English]
To evaluate the effect of different levels of chemical and organic fertilizers on seed yield, its components and oil content of sunflower (Hybrid Iroflor), a factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with 12 treatment and 4 replications was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh during 2014 growing season. The first factor consisted of 3 levels of chemical fertilizer (C0: without using any fertilizer, C1: application of urea at the rate of 150 kg.ha-1 and C2:application of 75 kg.ha-1 urea + 50 kg.ha-1 super phosphate triple) and the second factor comprised of organic manure applications (O) with 4 levels (O0: without organic fertilizer, O1:animal manure application at the rate of 40 t.ha-1, O2: poultry manure application at the rate of 30 t.ha-1 and O3: %50 poultry manure+ %50 animal manure. Results showed that the highest chlorophyll index belonged to %50 nitrogen + 50% phosphorus plus poultry manure and nitrogen fertilizer plus poultry manure treatment combinations respectively. Applications of 75 kg N ha-1+ 50 kg P ha-1 and %50 poultry manure+ %50 animal manure treatment combination, resulted in grain yield increase by %42.02 as compared to the application of 75 kg N ha-1+ 50 kg P ha-1. Maximum kernel number per head was produced by interaction effect of chemical nitrogen fertilizer (150 kg N ha-1) animal manure (40 t.ha-1). Biological yield and harvest index were increased by %22.9 and %15.98 respectively, as compared to control and application of %50 poultry manure+ %50 animal manure. Highest percentage of grain oil (52.45%) was obtained by applications of 15 t.ha-1 poultry manure+ 20 t.ha-1 of animal manure, as compared to the control (30.13 percent). The highest oil yield (1784.57 kg.ha-1) was also belonged combined application of 75 kg N ha-1+ 50 kg P ha-1 and 15 t.ha-1 poultry manure+ 20 t.ha-1 animal manure. Thus, integrated application of organic and chemical fertilizers (75 kg N ha-1+ 50 kg P ha-1 and 15 t.ha-1 poultry manure+ 20 t.ha-1 animal manure) improved both grain yield and its oil content of sunflower more than their individual applications.
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