بهبود عملکرد و روغن دانه آفتابگردان(Helianthus annuus L) با کاربرد کودهای آلی و شیمیایی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش برای بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف کودهای شیمیایی و آلی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد آفتابگردان روغنی هیبرید ایروفلور، به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه‌ی طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 12 تیمار و 4 تکرار در سال زراعی 1393 در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل کود شیمیایی در سه سطح، C0 (بدون مصرف کود شیمیایی)، C1 (مصرف 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره)، ) Cمصرف 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره+50 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرفسفات تریپل) و فاکتور دوم شامل کود آلی در چهار سطح، O0 (بدون مصرف کود آلی)، O1(کود گاوی به میزان 40 تن در هکتار)، O2 (کود مرغی به میزان 30 تن در هکتار)، O3 (مصرف 50 درصد کود مرغی+ 50 درصد کود گاوی) بود. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار شاخص کلروفیل برگ‌ها در ترکیب تیماری 50 درصد نیتروژن+ 50 درصد فسفر و کود مرغی و بعد از آن در ترکیب تیماری مصرف 150 کیلوگرم کود اوره+ کود مرغی حاصل شد. عملکرد دانه با کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای آلی و شیمیایی (مصرف 50 درصد کود مرغی+ 50 درصد کود گاوی و 50 درصد نیتروژن+ 50 درصد فسفر) نسبت به مصرف 50 درصد نیتروژن+ 50 درصد فسفر، 02/42 درصد افزایش یافت. همچنین، بیشترین تعداد دانه در طبق در برهم­ کنش 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن و 40 تن در هکتار کود گاوی به­ دست آمد. عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت با کاربرد 50 درصد کود مرغی+ 50 درصد کود گاوی به ­ترتیب 22.9 و 15.98 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافتند. بالاترین درصد روغن (52.45 درصد) در تیمار 50 درصد کود مرغی+ 50 درصد کود گاوی به ­دست آمد که نسبت به شاهد 30.13 درصد افزایش نشان داد. همچنین، بیشترین عملکرد روغن (1784.57 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به ترکیب تیماری 50 درصد کود مرغی+ 50 درصد کود گاوی با 75 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژنه+ 50 کیلوگرم کود فسفره تعلق داشت. بنابراین مصرف تلفیقی کودهای آلی و شیمیایی (50 درصد کود مرغی+ 50 درصد کود گاوی با 75 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژنه+ 50 کیلوگرم کود فسفره) در بهبود صفات کمّی و کیفی آفتابگردان مؤثرتر از مصرف به‌تنهایی هر یک از آنها دیده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improvement of Seed Yield, its Components and Oil Content of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by Applications of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdollah Javanmard 1
  • Fariborz Shekari 2
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effect of different levels of chemical and organic fertilizers on seed yield, its components and oil content of sunflower (Hybrid Iroflor), a factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with 12 treatment and 4 replications was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh during 2014 growing season. The first factor consisted of 3 levels of chemical fertilizer (C0: without using any fertilizer, C1: application of urea at the rate of 150 kg.ha-1 and C2:application of 75 kg.ha-1 urea + 50 kg.ha-1 super phosphate triple) and the second factor comprised of organic manure applications (O) with 4 levels (O0: without organic fertilizer, O1:animal manure application at the rate of 40 t.ha-1, O2: poultry manure application at the rate of 30 t.ha-1 and O3: %50 poultry manure+ %50 animal manure. Results showed that the highest chlorophyll index belonged to %50 nitrogen + 50% phosphorus plus poultry manure and nitrogen fertilizer plus poultry manure treatment combinations respectively. Applications of 75 kg N ha-1+ 50 kg P ha-1 and %50 poultry manure+ %50 animal manure treatment combination, resulted in grain yield increase by %42.02 as compared to the application of 75 kg N ha-1+ 50 kg P ha-1. Maximum kernel number per head was produced by interaction effect of chemical nitrogen fertilizer (150 kg N ha-1) animal manure (40 t.ha-1). Biological yield and harvest index were increased by %22.9 and %15.98 respectively, as compared to control and application of %50 poultry manure+ %50 animal manure. Highest percentage of grain oil (52.45%) was obtained by applications of 15 t.ha-1 poultry manure+ 20 t.ha-1 of animal manure, as compared to the control (30.13 percent). The highest oil yield (1784.57 kg.ha-1) was also belonged combined application of 75 kg N ha-1+ 50 kg P ha-1 and 15 t.ha-1 poultry manure+ 20 t.ha-1 animal manure. Thus, integrated application of organic and chemical fertilizers (75 kg N ha-1+ 50 kg P ha-1 and 15 t.ha-1 poultry manure+ 20 t.ha-1 animal manure) improved both grain yield and its oil content of sunflower more than their individual applications.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cattle manure
  • Grain yield
  • harvest index
  • Nitrogen Fertilizer
  • oil percent
  • Poultry manure

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