عنوان مقاله [English]
To evaluate the effects of seed priming of hempseed with folic acid and hydrogen peroxide on some morphological and physiological traits a factorial greenhouse experiment based on randomized complete design with four replications was conducted at Islamic Azad University, Mahabad Branch. Treatments consisted of hydrogen peroxide at five levels (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30 mm/liter) as the first factor and the four leveld of folic acid (5, 10, 20, 27 mm/liter) as the second factor.Seeds, to be primed, were immersed into solution of folic acid for 24 hours and hydrogen peroxide for 6 hours. The characteristics like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll content, relative water content, plant height, root length, allometric coefficient, plant fresh and dry weights, were measured. Result of analysis of variance showed that the effects of folic acid and hydrogen peroxide on all characters were significant, but the interaction between the two treatments were only significant on relative water content and allometric coefficient. In this study, seed priming with 15 mm/liter of hydrogen peroxide and 5mm folic acid resulted in highest chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll contents, plant height, root length, fresh and dry weights. Increasing hydrogen peroxide level above 15mm/liter affected traits negatively. Combinated treatments of 15 mm/liter of hydrogen peroxide and 5 and 10 mm of folic acid resulted in highest relative water content and allometric coefficient, respectively. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that priming seeds with 15 mm/liter of hydrogen peroxide and 5mm folic acid is recommended to produce proper morphological and physiological traits.
Afzal, A., S.M.A. Basra, N. Ahmad, and E.A. Warraich. 2002. Effect of priming and grow regulator treatment on emergence and seedling growth of hybrid Mayze (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Agriculture Biology.4: 303-306.
Asghari, M. 1992. Ethylene effect on osmotic adjustment and growth of axial and cotyedonary tissues of seed under drought stress. Agricultural Sciences Industry. 7: 137-145.
Bermingham, A., and J.P. Derrick. 2002. The folic acid biosynthesis pathway in bacteria: Evaluation of potential for antibacterial drug discovery. Bioessays. 24: 637–648.
Bienert, G.P., J.K. Schjoerring, and T.P. Jahn. 2006. Membrane transport of hydrogen peroxide. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1758: 994-1003.
Burguieres, E., P. McCue, Y.I. Kwon, and K. Shetty. 2007. Effect of vitamin C and folic acid on seed vigour response and phenolic-linked antioxidant activity. Bioresource Technology. 98: 1393-404.
Chang, S.M., and J.M. Sung. 1990. Effect of seed priming treatment on the water use efficiency of tomato seeds. Journal of Crop Research. 11: 178-86.
Croxford, J.L., and T. Yamamura. 2005. Cannabinoids and the immune system: Potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 166: 3-18.
Demir Kaya, M., G. Okcu, M. Atak, Y. Cikili, and O. Kolsarici. 2006. Seed treatment to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). European Journal of Agronomy. 24: 291- 295.
Gecheva, T., I. Gadjeva, F. Van Breusegemb, D. Inzeb, S. Dukiandjieva, A. Tonevaa, and I. Minkov. 2002. Hydrogen peroxide protects tobacco from oxidative stress by inducing a set of antioxidant enzymes. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 59:708-714.
Goldani, A.D., and D. Kamali. 2011. Effect of exogenous hydrogen peroxide on increasing drought resistance of crops sprout flower (Gomphrena globosa L.). Journal of Agricultural Research. 10 (3): 613-603. (In Persian)
Guzman, M. 2003. Cannabinoids: Potential anticancer agents. Nature Reviews. 3:745-755.
Harris, D. 2001. On- farm seed priming reduces risk and increases yield in tropical crops. Seed Science and Technology. 23: 17-26.
He, L., Z. Gao, and R. Li. 2009. Pretreatment of seed with H2O2 enhances drought tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8 (22): 6151-6157.
Heldt, H.W. 2005. Plant biochemistry. Elsevier Academic Press Publication. 620 pp.
Howlett, A.C., C.S. Breivogel, S.R. Childers S.A. Deadwyler, R.E. Hampson, and L.Y. Porrino. 2004. Cannabinoid physiology and pharmacology: 30 years of progress. Neuropharmacology. 47:345-358
Hu, Y., Y. Ge, C. Zhang, T. Ju, and W. Cheng. 2009. Cadmium toxicity and translocation in rice seedlings are reduced by hydrogen peroxide pretreatment. Plant Growth Regulation. 59: 51-61.
Hung, S.H., C.W. Yu, and C.H. Lin. 2005. Hydrogen peroxide functions as a stress signal in plants. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 46: 1-10.
Javadi, A.S., P. Esfandiari, and B. Mousavi. 2013. The effect of folic acid (vitamin B9) on germination of wheat under cadmium stress. Thirteenth Conference of Crop Sciences and the Third Conference of Seed Science and Technology. Seed and Plant Improvement Institute Karaj. Iran. August 24-26, 288-299.
Kathiresan A, H.R. Lafitte, J. Chen, L. Mansueto, R. Bruskiewich, and J. Bennett. 2006. Gene expression micro arrays and their application in drought stress research. Field Crops Res. 97: 101-110.
Katzman, L.S., A.G. Taylor, and R.W. Langhans. 2001. Seed enhance- ments to improve spinach germination. Horticultural Science. 36: 979-81.
Khvazh, D. 1999. Effect of salinity on seed germination and establishment of four species of plants in arid and desert. Department of Natural Resources, University of Technology, A Master's thesis Desertification. (In Persian).
Lichtenthaler, H.K., and A.R. Wellburn. 1985. Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophylls A and B of leaf in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions. 11: 591-592.
Maleki, F., P. Esfandiari, and M. Baradearan Firoozabadi. 2011. Effects of seed treatments and foliar application of folic acid and ascorbic acid on yield and yield components in green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). First National Conference on Sustainable Development of Agriculture Using Crop Pattern. 13 January 2011. Hamadan, 311-316. (In Persian).
Moskova, I., D. Todorova, V. Alexieva, and I. Sergiev. 2007. Hydrogen peroxide pretreatment alleviates paraquat injuries in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Compets Rendus Academic Bulgare Science. 60(10): 1101-1106.
Murillo-rodriguez, E. 2008 .The role of the CB1 receptor in the regulation of sleep. Neuro-Psycho pharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 32: 1420-1427.
Murugu, F.S., C. Chiduza, P.Nyamugafata, L.J. Clark, W.R. Whalley, and W. Finch Savage. 2004. Effects of on-farm seed priming on consecutive daily sowing occasions on the emergence and growth of maize in semi-aride Zembabwe. Field Crops Research. 89:49-57.
Pill, W.G., and A.D. Necker. 2001. The effect of seed treatment on germination and establishment of kentuky blu grass (Poa pratenis L.). Journal of Agronomy. 158: 1187-1195.
Roy, N.K., and A.K. Srivastava. 2000. Adverse effect of salt stress conditions on chlorophyll content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves and its amelioration through pre-soaking treatments. Indian Journal of Agriculture Science. 70: 777-778.
Ślesak, I., M. Libik, B. Karpinska, S. Karpinski, and S. Miszalskiz. 2007. The role of hydrogen peroxide in regulation of plant metabolism and cellular signalling in response to environmental stresses. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 54: 39-50.
Soltani, A. M. Gholipoor, and E. Zeinali. 2006. Seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of wheat as affected by drought and salinity. Environment and Experimental Botany. 55: 195-200.
Stimola, A. 2011. Cell biology. The Rosen Publishing Group. 571 pp.
Taiz, L., and E. Zeiger. 2010. Plant physiology, Fifth Edition, SA, Inc.
Upadhyaya, H., M.H. Khan, and S.K. Panda. 2007. Hydrogen peroxide induces oxidative stress in detached leaves of Oryza sativa L. General and Applied Plant Physiology. 33 (1-2): 83-95.
van Breusegem, F., J. Bailey-Serres, and R. Mittler. 2008. Unraveling the tapestry of networks involving reactive oxygen species in plants. Plant Physiology. 147: 978-984.
Villa-Castorena, M., A.L. Ulery, E.A.C. Valencia, and M.D. Remmenga. 2003. Division S-4-soil fertility and plant nutrition. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 67: 1781-1789.
Xing, H.L., L. Tan, L. An, Z. Zhao, S. Wang, and C. Zhang. 2004. Evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in osmotic stress tolerance of wheat seedlings: inverse correlation between leaf abscisic acid accumulation and leaf water loss. Plant Growth Regulation. 42: 61-68.
Yoshimatsu, K., O. Iicla, and T. Kitazawa. 2004. Growth characteristics of Cannabis sativa cultivated in a phytotron and in the field. Bulletin on Natural Instruction of Health Science. 122: 16-20.