روند پر شدن دانه در باقلا (.Vicia faba L) تحت تاثیر تاریخ و تراکم کاشت

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبد کاووس، ایران

2 دانشجوی دوره دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبد کاووس، ایران

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی تأثیر تاریخ و تراکم کاشت بر فنولوژی، عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد، سرعت و دوره پر شدن دانه در باقلا آزمایشی در سال 1392-1391در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه گنبد به­ صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­ های کامل تصادفی با 4 تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورها شامل تاریخ کاشت در 3 سطح (4 نوامبر، 4 دسامبر و 3 ژانویه) و تراکم بوته در 4 سطح (8، 12، 16 و 20 بوته در مترمربع) بود. نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر تاریخ کاشت بر فنولوژی، عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد، سرعت و دوره پر شدن دانه معنی ­دار بودند، اما، تراکم بوته تأثیر معنی ­داری بر هیچ یک از صفات مذکور نداشت. مقایسه ضرایب معادله سیگموییدی نشان داد که سرعت پر شدن دانه (b) در 3 تاریخ کاشت متفاوت بود. بیشترین سرعت پر شدن دانه در تاریخ کاشت 3 ژانویه و کمترین آن متعلق به تاریخ کاشت 4 نوامبر بود. اثر تاریخ کاشت بر دوره پر شدن دانه معنی­ دار بود، اما تراکم اثر معنی ­داری روی دوره پر شدن دانه نداشت. تجزیه رگرسیونی نشان داد که 0.01 گرم در روز افزایش در سرعت رشد دانه در واحد دانه، منجر به افزایش 45.11، 32.43 و 26.66 گرم در وزن دانه به ­ترتیب در تاریخ ­های کاشت 4 نوامبر، 4 دسامبر و 3 ژانویه گردید. تأخیر در کاشت دوره پر شدن دانه را به مدت 8.53 روز کاهش داد. همچنین، همراه با کاهش دوره پر شدن دانه، وزن دانه به میزان 0.27 گرم کاهش یافت. تاریخ کاشت نسبت به تراکم به دلیل ایجاد شرایط مختلف محیطی از قبیل طول روز و دما تأثیر بیشتری روی سرعت و دوره نمو دانه، صفات فنولوژیک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد داشت. با تأخیر در کاشت زمان لازم برای سبز شدن افزایش یافت اما دوره پر شدن دانه به دلیل برخورد با دماهای بالا کوتاه شد که این امر منجر به کاهش عملکرد دانه گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Seed Filling Trend of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) as Affected by Planting Date and Density

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Rahemi Karizaki 1
  • Abbas Foroughi 2
1 Assistant Prof. Dept. of Plant Production Gonbad University, Gonbad, Iran
2 Former Ph.D. Student in Agronomy, Department of plant production, Gonbad University, Gonbad, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of planting date and plant density on phenology, seed yield, its components, seed filling rate and grain filling period of faba bean, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at Research Farm of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Gonbad University, Iran, during growing season of 2012-2013. The factors were three planting dates (4th of November, 4th of December 2013 and 3th of January 2014) and four planting densities (8, 12, 16 and 18 plant/m2). The results showed that planting dates significantly affected on phenology, yield and its components, seed filling rate and periods while the effect of plant density on seed filling period was not significant. Comparison of sigmoid equation coefficients showed that seed filling rates in three planting dates were different. The highest seed filling rate was obtained in 3th of January and the lowest at November 4, planting dates. The effect of planting date on seed filling duration was also significant, but it was not on plant density. Regression analysis showed that increasing 0.01g seed growth rate in seed unit, resulted in seed weight increase by 45.11, 32.43 and 26.66 g for November 4, December 4 and January 3 planting dates respectively. Delaying planting dates decreased seed filling period by 8.53 days and seed weight by 0.27 g. due to its effect on day length and temperature changes. Delayed planting dates were more effective on the rate and period of seed filling and phenology of faba bean. Delaying in planting date increased time to emergence, while decreased seed filling period and seed yield because of coincidence of this period with high temperatures.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • faba bean
  • Phenology
  • Seed filling period
  • Seed weight
  • yield
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