مقایسه عملکرد و برخی ویژگی‌های کیفی علوفه ذرت، سورگوم و تاج خروس علوفه‌ای در تراکم و تاریخ کاشت‌های مختلف در استان فارس

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، واحد علوم و تحقیقات،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک،ایران

4 استاد گروه زراعت، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی اثرات تراکم و تاریخ کاشت بر عملکرد و ویژگی­‌های کیفی سه گیاه علوفه ­ای ذرت، سورگوم و گیاه جدید تاج خروس علوفه‌ای، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1392 به صورت کرت‌های دو بار خرد شده در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در دو منطقه‌ از مرودشت واقع در استان فارس اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل نوع گیاه(ذرت علوفه ‏ای 704، سورگوم علوفه‏ ای رقم اسپیدفید، تاج خروس علوفه‏ ای)، تراکم بوته (66000، 83000، 110000 بوته در هکتار) و تاریخ کاشت (1، 15، 30 تیرماه) بودند. تجزیه مرکب واریانس داده‏ ها نشان داد که تیمارهای نوع گیاه، تراکم بوته و تاریخ کاشت اثر معنی ‏داری بر عملکرد، درصد پروتئین دانه، میزان آهن، درصد کلسیم، میزان روی، درصد پروتئین خام علوفه و فیبر داشتند. به­ طوری­ که، بیشترین میزان عملکرد علوفه خشک (11279.70 گرم برمترمربع)، درصد پروتئین دانه (14.85 درصد)، میزان آهن (446 میلی­ گرم در کیلوگرم ماده خشک)، درصد کلسیم (3.66 درصد) و کمترین درصد فیبر (9.44 درصد) در گیاه تاج خروس در تاریخ کاشت 15 تیرماه با تراکم 66000 بوته در هکتار مشاهده شد. بیشترین میزان روی (113.50 میلی ­گرم در کیلوگرم ماده خشک) و درصد پروتئین خام علوفه (با میانگین 1.69 درصد) در گیاه ذرت به­ ترتیب درتاریخ کاشت اول و 30 تیرماه در تراکم 66000 بوته در هکتار وجود داشت که از نظر درصد پروتئین خام علوفه، تفاوت معنی ­داری با گیاه تاج‌خروس در کشت 15 تیر ماه (1.650 درصد) نداشت. بیشترین درصد فیبر نیز در گیاه سورگوم (26.393 درصد) در کشت 30 تیر ماه و تراکم 110000 بوته در هکتار مشاهده شد. با تاخیر در کاشت و افزایش تراکم بوته، کیفیت علوفه در سه گیاه کاهش یافت. به ­طورکلی، با توجه به نتایج به ­دست آمده، علوفه گیاه تاج خروس در مقایسه با ذرت و سورگوم، از نظر عملکرد و کیفیت یک گیاه علوفه‌ای ارزشمند محسوب می‌شود و بهترین تیمار پیشنهادی جهت عملکرد بیشتر و کیفیت بالاتر این علوفه در استان فارس تاریخ کاشت 15 تیرماه و تراکم 66000 بوته در هکتار می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Yield and Some Forage Qualitative Characteristics of Corn, Sorghum and Amaranth in Response to Density and Sowing Date in Fars Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Moshaver 1
  • Yahya Emam 2
  • Hamid Madani 3
  • Ghorban Nour Mohamadi 4
  • Hossein Heidari Sharifabad 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor of Agronomy Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
3 Associte Professor of Agronomy Department, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
4 Professor of Agronomy Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Field studies were conducted  at  Marvdasht area of  Fars province in 2013 to investigate the effects of planting date and density on yield and some qualitative characteristics of three forage crops; corn, sorghum and amaranth . Split split plot experiments were conducted in a complete randomized block design with 3 replications at two locations. Treatments were plant species (forage corn 704, forage sorghum cultivar Speedfeed and a new forage crop: amaranth), plant density (66000, 83000 and 110000 plants per hectare) and planting date (June 22, July 6, July 21). Combined analysis of variance indicated that, plant species, planting density and date significantly affected hay yield, grain protein percentage, iron and zinc content, calcium percentage, fiber and crude protein content. Highest hay production (11279.70 g.m-2 ), grain protein percentage(14.85%), iron content ( 446 mg kg-1 dry matter), calcium percentage (3.66%), and the lowest fiber content (9.44%) were obtained from amaranth with density of 66000 plants per hectare planted on July the 6th. The highest content of zinc(113.50 mg kg-1 dry matter) was observed  with corn planted on June 22 with density of 66000 plants per hectare. The highest  content of crude protein was in corn planted on July 21 with density of 66000 plants per hectare( 1.69%) without significant difference against amaranth planted on July 6 (1.65%). Maximum fiber content (26.39%) belonged to sorghum plant. The results of this experiment showed that quality of 3 forage species were reduced with delaying planting date and increasing plant density. The results of this experiment, as a whole, showed that amaranth with density of 66000 plants per hectare at sowing date of July 6 can be recommended as appropriate and superior forage plant to Fars province based on the traits evaluated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Forage quality
  • Forage yield of amaranth
  • iron content
  • Protein percentage

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