ارزیابی اکوفیزیولوژیک سه رقم ذرت (Zea mays L) در سطوح آبیاری و کاربرد سوپرجاذب

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زراعت، واحد ملکان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ملکان، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر مقادیر مختلف سوپر جاذب در سطوح مختلف آبیاری بر عملکرد ارقام مختلف ذرت آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­ های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ملکان و سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل سطح­ های مختلف آبیاری (آبیاری پس از 70، 110 و 150 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر) و فاکتور فرعی شامل سطوح مختلف سوپرجاذب (عدم کاربرد، کاربرد سوپر جاذب) و ارقام ذرت (704، ماگسیمای داخلی و ماگسیمای خارجی) بود. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده از این مطالعه بیشترین عملکرد دانه ذرت با 985 گرم در متر مربع در سطح آبیاری پس از 70 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر و عدم کاربرد سوپرجاذب به ­دست آمد. سطح آبیاری پس از 150 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کاهش معنی­ داری را در عملکرد دانه ذرت باعث شد. سطح آبیاری پس از 150 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر از نظر عملکرد دانه 46.1 درصد عملکرد کمتری در مقایسه با تیمار سطح آبیاری پس از 70 میلی­ متر تبخیر از سطح تشتک تبخیر بود. این کاهش در عملکرد تحت تاثیر سطح آبیاری پس از 150 میلی ­متر تبخیر از سطح تشتک تبخیر ناشی از کاهش هر دو جز عملکرد اصلی تعداد دانه در بوته و وزن صد دانه ذرت بود. در شرایط عدم کاربرد سوپرجاذب، آبیاری پس از 150 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک نسبت به آبیاری پس از 70 میلی­ متر تبخیر از آن، تعداد دانه در بلال ذرت را 38.8 درصد کاهش داد. وزن صد دانه ذرت نیز تحت تاثیر سطح آبیاری پس از 150 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر به میزان 13.8 درصد کاهش یافت. به­ طوری­که، کاربرد سوپرجاذب در سطوح آبیاری پس از 150 میلی ­متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر عملکرد دانه ذرت را 38 درصد نسبت به عدم کاربرد آن افزایش داد. بین ارقام از نظر اغلب صفات و از جمله عملکرد دانه اختلاف معنی ­داری وجود نداشت. البته، با کاربرد سوپرجاذب در شرایط کم آبی شدید، می­توان اثرات تنش کم آبی بر عملکرد ذرت را کاهش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ecophysiological Evaluation of Three Maize (Zea mays L.) Cultivars under Irrigation Regimes and Use of Super Absorbent

نویسندگان [English]

  • Allahyar Hassanzadeh
  • Elnaz Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi
Department of Agronomy, Malekan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Malekan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effects of using super absorbent and irrigation regimes on seed yield and yield components of maize cultivars a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was performed at the Research Field of Malekan Islamic Azad University. Main factor consisted of three irrigation regimes (irrigation after 70, 110 and 150 mm evaporation from pan) and subfactor of two levels of super absorbent applications (application and without application) and three maize cultivars (704, Iranian maxima and overseas maxima). Based on the results obtained it was revealed that highest seed yield (985 g/m2) belonged to the plants irrigated after 70 mm evaporation from the pan without using super absorbent. Irrigation after evaporation of 150 mm from the pan decreased both seed numbers per plant and 100 seed weight, and seed yield loss amounted to be 46.1% as compared with irrigation after 70 mm evaporation from the pan. Without using super absorbent and irrigation after 150 mm evaporation from the pan decreased seed number per ear by 38.8% and 100 seed weight by 13.8%. However, application of super absorbent and irrigation of plants after 150 mm evaporation from the pan increased by grain yield 38% as compared with out using super absorbent. There were not significant difference between cultivars for seed yield and yield components. It could be concluded that application of super absorbent under water shortage conditions may reduce crop yield losses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cultivar
  • Grain yield
  • Maize
  • Super absorbent
  • Water Shortage

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