عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد سه ژنوتیپ گندم تحت رژیم‌های آبیاری

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

در یک آزمایش مزرعه‌ای اثر تنش خشکی بر عملکرد دانه و اجزای مرتبط با آن در سه ژنوتیپ گندم در سال زراعی 93-1392 در منطقه پارس‌آباد مغان بررسی شد. این تحقیق به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده و در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل رژیم‌های آبیاری در پنج سطح به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و ژنوتیپ در سه سطح (ارقام شیرودی و چمران و لاین N-80-18) به­ عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر رژیم آبیاری بر صفات عملکرد دانه، وزن خشک تک‌بوته، ارتفاع بوته، شاخص سطح برگ، تعداد سنبله در متر مربع، تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن هزار دانه و درصد پروتئین دانه و اثر ژنوتیپ بر روی کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه معنی‌دار بودند. اثر متقابل رژیم آبیاری × ژنوتیپ بر صفات عملکرد دانه، وزن خشک تک‌بوته و تعداد دانه در سنبله معنی‌دار بودند. در شرایط بهینه آبیاری عملکرد دانه ارقام شیرودی و چمران و لاین N-80-18 به­ ترتیب معادل 4661.7، 4200 و 4402 کیلوگرم در هکتار برآورد شدند. با اعمال تنش رطوبتی عملکرد دانه و سایر صفات کاهش معنی‌‌داری پیدا کردند. همچنین، تنش کم‌آبیاری منجر به افزایش میزان پروتئین دانه در هر سه ژنوتیپ شد. رقم چمران بیشترین عملکرد دانه را در شرایط تنش خشکی داشت و عملکرد آن در شرایط دیم در مقایسه با آبیاری بهینه، به میزان 26 درصد کاهش یافت. این رقم با توجه به ثبات عملکرد دانه در شرایط تنش و کمبود آب در آخر فصل رشد، برای کاشت در شرایط مشابه این تحقیق مناسب به نظر می‌‌رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Irrigation Regimes on Yield and Yield Componets of Three Wheat Cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Issa Nabati 1
  • Peyman Sharifi 2
1 Former M.Sc. Student in Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

In a field experiment, the effect of drought stress on yield and yield components of three wheat genotypes was investigated during 2013-2014 in Parsabad, Iran. It was performed in a split plot expriment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental factors consisted of irrigation regimes at five levels which considered as main factor and genotypes at three levels (Shirodi, Chamran and line N-80-18) as sub factor. Results revealed that the effects of irrigation regimes were significant on seed yield, plant dry weight, plant height, leaf area index, number of spike per m2, number of seeds per spike, 1000 seeds weight and seed protein content. The effect of genotype on all of the traits under study was significant. The effects genotype × irrigation regime interaction were also significant on seed yield, dry plant weight and number of seeds per spike. Under optimal irrigation, seed yield of Shirodi and Chamran cultivars and line N-80-18 were 4661.7, 4200 and 4402 kg ha-1, respectively. Moisture stress significantly reduced seed yield and yield components. Deficit irrigation increased seed protein content of the genotypes under study. Chamran cultivar produced highest seed yield under drought stress and in rainfed conditions, while its grain yield was reduced by 26% as compared with that of optimal irrigation condition. Based on the stability of yield of this cultivar in the all of irrigation regimes, under water limited condition, it can be considered suitable for this region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • genotype
  • growth
  • Wheat
  • yield
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