اثر آبیاری و الگوی کاشت بر برخی صفات زراعی ذرت دانه ای (604S.C)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی، گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، صندوق پستی 3697- 19395 تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تنش­ خشکی و الگوی کاشت بر عملکرد دانه ذرت دانه ­ای رقم سینگل ­کراس 604 آزمایشی در سال زراعی91-1390 در ایستگاه مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی استان ایلام، به صورت کرت­ های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­ های کامل تصادفی در 4 تکرار انجام شد. کرت اصلی شامل تنش خشکی در سه سطح آبیاری (40 ،60 و 80 میلی­ متر تبخیر از سطح طشتک تبخیر کلاس A) و کرت فرعی شامل چهار الگوی ­کاشت (تک­ ردیفه و دو ردیفه روی پشته، تک­ ردیفه و دو ردیفه در کف جویچه) در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تعداد دانه در بلال تنها تحت تاثیر اثرات ساده سطوح مختلف آبیـاری و آرایش کاشت معنی­ دار شد. به طوری­ که، تعداد دانه در بلال در 40 و 80 میلی­ متر تبخیر به ­ترتیب دارای بیشترین (489 عدد) و کمترین (458 عدد) بودند. آرایش کاشت تک ­ردیفه روی کف فارو و تک ­ردیفه روی پشته به ­ترتیب بیشترین (486 دانه) و کمترین (448 دانه) تعداد دانه در بلال را دارا بودند. نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش نشان داد که اثر برهم­ کنش سطوح مختلف آبیاری و آرایش کاشت از نظر وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه، شاخص برداشت، عملکرد زیستی و ارتفاع بوته دارای اختلاف معنی­ داری شدند. در این پژوهش مشاهده شد که سطح آبیاری 40 میلی­ متر تبخیر و الگوی ­کاشت تک­ ردیفه روی کف فارو بالاترین وزن هزار دانه (329.9 گرم)، عملکرد دانه (9220 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، شاخص برداشت (53.7 درصد)، عملکرد­ زیستی (18451 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و ارتفاع بوته (222.2 سانتی ­متر) را دارا بودند. با وجود این، بین تیمارهای 40 و 60 میلی­ متر تبخیـر × الگـوی کاشت تک ­ردیفه روی کف فارو، از نظـر عملکرد دانه اختلاف معنی­ داری مشاهده نگردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Irrigation Regemes and Planting Patterns on Seed Yield and some Agronomic Traits of Maize (S.C. 604)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Soleimani fard 1
  • Rahim Naseri 2
1 Faculty Member, Department of Agriculture, Payam Noor University, PO Box 3697-19359, Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D. student in Crop Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effects of irrigation regems and planting patterns on yield and yield components of maize, a split plot experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Sarableh Agricultural Station, Ilam in 2011-2012 cropping season. The treatments were three levels of irrigation (40, 60 and 80 evaporation (mm) pan (Class A)) as main plot and four planting pattern, (single and double rows on furrow bank and single and rows on the furrow bed) as sub plot. Number of grains per ear was significantly affected different levels of irrigation and planting patterns. The highest (489 grains) and lowest (458 grains) number of kernels per ear were observed at 40 and 80 (mm) evaporation, respectively. The highest (486) and lowest (448) kernels per ear were observed in planting pattern of double row on furrow bed and planting pattern of single row on furrow bank, respectively. The results showed that the interaction effect among different levels of irrigation and planting pattern were significant for 1000 kernel weight, seed yield, harvest index, biological yield and plant height. It was also observed that irrigating plant at 40 mm evaporation (mm) and planting pattern of single row on furrow banks produced highest 1000 kernel weight (329.9 g), seed yield (9220 kg.ha-1), harvest index (53.7%), biological yield (18451 kg.ha-1) and plant height (222.2 cm). In this study there was no significant difference between 40 and 60 mm evaporations from pan × planting pattern of double row on furrow bed for seed yield.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • Grain yield
  • planting pattern
  • Zea mays

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