عکس العمل صفات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد ژنوتیپ های لوبیا قرمز (Phaseolus vulgaris L) تحت تاثیر قطع آبیاری در مراحل مختلف رشدی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، پردیس علوم و تحقیقات خوزستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران

4 استاد گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

5 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد شوشتر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شوشتر، ایران

چکیده

کمبود آب و کاهش تـدریجی منــابع آبی در دسترس، از عوامل محدود کننده تولید گیاهان زراعی می­ باشند. به منظور بررسی اثر قطع آبیاری بر برخی ویژگی­ های فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد ژنوتیپ­ های لوبیا قرمز آزمایشی به صورت کرت­ های یک بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک ­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1393 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اراک اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل سطوح آبیاری: آبیاری کامل (شاهد)، قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و قطع آبیاری در مرحله نیام­ دهی و فاکتور فرعی شامل سه رقم و ژنوتیپ لوبیا قرمز به نام­ های درخشان و گلی و ژنوتیپ  D81083 بودند. نتایج نشان دادند که قطع آبیاری در مراحل گلدهی و نیام دهی بر صفات عملکرد بیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه، شاخص برداشت، تعداد نیام در بوته، تعداد دانه در نیام و میزان آب از دست رفته برگ معنی­ دار بود. در بررسی اثر متقابل تنش × ژنوتیپ­ ها، بیشترین عملکرد دانه (4415.30 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در رقم گلی و در تیمار آبیاری کامل (شـاهد) مشـاهده شد. تنش کم آبی در مرحله گلدهی عملکرد دانه را به طور معنی ­داری کاهش داد و در بین ژنوتیپ ­های مورد بررسی، D81083 کمترین میزان افت عملکرد (معادل 60 درصد) را در مرحله قطع آبیاری در گلدهی داشت. در بررسی اجزای عملکرد مشخص شد تعداد دانه در نیام در تیمار قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی کاهش یافته است. کاهش تعداد دانه در نیـام رقم درخشان (38 درصد) بیشتر از بقیه ژنوتیپ ­ها بود. با توجه به نتایج این آزمایش به نظر می­ رسد که ژنوتیپ­ های لوبیا در مرحله گلدهی نسبت به تنش کم آبی حساسیت بیشتری دارند در عین حال، ژنوتیپ D81083 و رقم گلی در مجموع نسبت به رقم درخشان از نظر تولید در شرایط کم آبی برتر بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Yield and Physiological Response of Red Bean Genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Cutting Irrigation off at Different Growth Stages

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shadi Sadat Mohajerani 1
  • Mojtaba Alavi Fazel 2
  • Hamid Madani 3
  • Shahram Lack 4
  • Adel Modhej 5
1 Department of Agronomy, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Associate Prof., Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
5 Assistant Prof., Department of Agronomy, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Water deficit and graduall reduction of available water resources are the limiting factors of crop production. To investigate the effect of water deficit stress on yield and components of some red bean genotypes a split plot experiment in the form of randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch. The treatments consisted of full irrigation (control), cutting irrigation off during flowering stage, cutting irrigation off of pod filling stage and three genotypes of red bean (derakhshan, goli, and D81083). The results showed that the effect of cutting off irrigation during the growth stages on biological yield, grain yield, harvest index, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod was significant. The results also showed that the highest seed yield belonged to the full irrigation (control) treatment, where D81083 and goli produced higher yields than derakhshan. Highest grain yield was belonged to goli at full irrigation (control) treatment. Among the genotypes under study, D81083 had the lowest amount of reduction equal to 60 percent during cutting off irrigation at flowering stage. Number of seeds per pod decreased when irrigation was cutted off during the flowering stage. Derakhshan produced higher yield than the other genotypes and its seed per pod decreased by 38 percent. The results also revealed that red bean genotypes were very sensitive to deficite water stress. As a whole D81083 and goli genotypes were higher yielders than Derakhshan under limited water conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cutting Irrigation off
  • Genotypes
  • Grain yield
  • Red bean
  • Relative water loss
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