ارزیابی تحمل به کم آبی 10 رقم سیب زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L) بر اساس برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد غده در منطقه اردبیل

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، پردیس بین الملل دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات ، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 عضو هیات علمی بخش تحقیقات زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل (مغان)، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

این تحقیق به منظور بررسی صفات فیزیولوژیکی موثر بر عملکرد 10 رقم سیب­ زمینی تحت شرایط ­تنش­ آبی، طی دو سال (1392 و 1393) در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اردبیل اجرا گردید. آزمایش به صورت اسپیلت پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک‏ های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام گرفت. کرت اصلی شامل سه سطح تنش ­آبی (تامین 100درصد ،80 درصد و 60 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه) و کرت فرعی شامل 10 رقم (خاوران، ساوالان، لوکا، ساتینا، سانته، مارفونا، کایزر، آگریا، آئولا و دراگا) از ارقام تجاری سیب‏ زمینی معرفی شده در 30 سال گذشته بود. در طی دوره رشد، محتوای آب نسبی برگ، نشت الکترولیت ‏ها و شاخص کلروفیل برگ در پنج مرحله رشدی سیب ­زمینی اندازه­ گیری شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب محتوی آب نسبی برگ­ ها در مراحل مختلف رشد سیب ­زمینی نشان داد که اختلاف بین ارقام، سال ­ها، و اثرمتقابل رقم در ­تنش آبی در کلیه مراحل رشد، اثرمتقابل رقم در سال در مرحله چهارم رشد و اثرمتقابل رقم، تنش و سال در مراحل اول، دوم و سوم رشدی سیب­ زمینی معنی ­دار بودند. از لحاظ میزان نشت الکترولیت ‏ها و شاخص کلروفیل بین سال، سطوح تنش آبی، ارقام و اثر متقابل رقم در تنش آبی در کلیه مراحل رشد اختلاف معنی ­داری وجود داشت. از نظر شاخص کلروفیل بین سطوح مختلف تنش آبی در مراحل اول، دوم، سوم و پنجم رشدی اختلاف معنی­ داری مشاهده شد. اختلاف عملکرد غده بین سال، سطوح تنش آبی، ارقام و اثرمتقابل ­تنش آبی در سـال، رقم در تنش آبی و سـال در رقم معنی­ دار گردید. براساس نتایج به ­دست آمده، در شرایط آبیاری عادی ارقام خاوران و ساتینا از محتوای آب نسبی بیشتر، نشت الکترولیت­ های کمتر، شاخص کلروفیل برگ بالاتر و عملکرد غده بیشتر برخوردار بودند. ارقام کایزر، دراگا و خاوران در شرایط تنش ملایم و ارقام آگریا و دراگا در شرایط تنش شدید میزان محتوی آب نسبی بیشتر و عملکرد غده بالاتر داشتند. ارقام ساوالان، لوکا، ساتینا و مارفونا در شرایط تنش شدید دارای میزان نشت الکترولیت­ های کمتر و عملکرد غده بیشتر و رقم ساوالان شاخص کلروفیل بالاتر و عملکرد غده بیشتر بودند و به عنوان ارقام متحمل به تنش کم آبی انتخاب شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Water Deficit Tolerance of 10 Potato Cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.)Based on some Physiological Traits and Tuber Yield in Ardabil Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Nouri 1
  • Ahmad Nezami 2
  • Mohammad Kafi 2
  • Davoud Hassanpanah 3
1 Ph.D. Student, International Branch of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Professor, Depatment of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Horticulture Crops Research Department, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre, AREEO, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

This research was conducted to study the physiological traits affecting the yield of 10 different potato cultivars under water deficit conditions in a two-years study (2013 and 2014) in Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station. The study was performed in a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main-plots were three levels of irrigations (irrigation with 100%, 80% and 60% required water) and sub-plots consisted of 10 commercial potato cultivars (Khavaran, Savalan, Luca, Satina, Sante, Marfona, Caeser, Agria, Aula and Draga) released in the last 30 years. During the growing season, some physiological traits including relative water content, electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll content of the leaves were measured at their five different growth stages. Combined analysis of variance of traits showed that there were significant differences cultivars between years, and cultivars × water deficit stress interaction in all growth stages in terms of relative water content, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll content and tuber yield. In terms of electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll content of the leaves, there were significant differences between years, different water stress levels, cultivars and cultivars × water stress level. In addition, in terms of tuber yield there were significant differences between years, water stress levels, cultivars and year × water stress level, cultivar × water stress level, cultivar × year.  There were significant differences in chlorophyll content of the leaves under different irrigation conditios in the first, second, third and fifth growth stages of the potato. According to the results, under normal irrigation condition, cultivars Khavaran and Satina had higher relative water content, lower electrolyte leakage, higher chlorophyll content of the leaves and higher tuber yield. Under mild water stress condition, cultivars Caeser, Draga and Khavaran and under severe stress condition, cultivars Agria and Draga maintained higher relative water content and higher tuber yield; whereas cultivars Savalan, Luca, Satina and Marfona showed lower electrolyte leakage and higher tuber yield; and cultivar Savalan showed the highest chlorophyll content of the leaves and higher tuber yield under severe stress condition and thus were selected as tolerant cultivars to water deficit conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • chlorophyll content
  • Electrolyte leakage
  • Potato cultivars
  • Relative water content

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