Arnon, D.E. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts polyphenol oxidase (Beta vulgaris
). Plant Physiology
. 24: 1-15.
Ashraf, M.Y. 2009. Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotechnology Advances
. 27: 84-93.
Baker, N.R. 2008. Chlorophyll fluorescence: a probe of photosynthesis in vivo. Annual Review of Plant Biology
Francisco, G., L. Jhon, S. Jifon, C. Micaela, and P. S. James. 2002. Gas exchanges chlorophyll and nutrient contents in relation to Na+
accumulation in ‘sunburst’ Mandarin grafted on different root stocks. Plant Science
. 35: 314-320.Gorgi
, M., M. Zahedi, and A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh.
2010. The effects of potassium and calcium on the response of safflower to salinity in hydroponic nutrient solution. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Water and Soil Science
. 14(53): 1-7. (In Persian).
Grewal, H. S., S. Norrish, and P. Cornish. 2004. Subsoil salts affect root function; shoot growth and ionic balance of wheat plants. Australian Agronomy Conference 2004 12th AAC, 4th ICSC
Hajlaoui, H., N. El Ayeb, J.P. Garrec, and M. Denden. 2010. Differential effects of salt stress on osmotic adjustment and solutes allocation on the basis of root and leaf tissue senescence of two silage maize (Zea mays
L.) varieties. Industrial Crops and Products
. 31: 122-130.
Jamil, M., S.H. Rehman, K.J. Lee, J. Man Kim, H.S.E. Kimand, and S.H. Rha. 2007. Salinity reduced growth PS2
photochemistry and chlorophyll content in radish. Science Agricultural
. 64(2): 111-118.
Javadipour, Z., M. Movahhedi Dehnavi, and H.R. Balouchi. 2012. Changes in the rate of proline, soluble sugars, glycinebetaine and protein content in leaves of six spring safflower (Carthamus tinctirius
L.) under salinity stress. Plant Process and Function
. 1(2): 13-24. (In Persian).
Javadipour, Z., M. Movahhedi Dehnavi, and H.R. Balouchi. 2013. Evaluation of photosynthesis parameters, chlorophyll content and fluorescence of safflower cultivars under saline condition. Electronic Journal of Crop Production
. 6(2): 35-56. (In Persian).
Kaya, M. D., G. Okcu, M. Atak, Y. Cikili, and O. Kolsarici. 2006. Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus
L.). European Journal of Agronomy
. 24: 291-295.
Khan, M.H., and S.K. Panda. 2008. Alterations in root lipid peroxidation and antioxidative responses in two rice cultivars under NaCl- salinity stress. Acta Physiological Plantarum
. 30: 89-91.
Kumar, V., V. Shiram, N. Jawali, and M. G. Shitole. 2007. Differential response of indicia rice genotypes to NaCl stress in relation to physiological and biochemical parameters. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science
. 53(2): 581-592.
Maxwell, K., and G.N. Johanson. 2000. Chlorophyll fluorescence a practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany
. 51: 659-668.
Mudrik, V., A. Kosobrukhov, I. Knyazeva, and T. Pigulevskaya. 2002. Changes in the photosynthetic characteristics of Plantago major plants caused by soil drought stress. Plant Growth Regulation
. 00: 1–6.
Munns, R., and M. Tester. 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology
. 59: 651- 681.
Nedjimi, B., and Y. Daoud. 2009. Ameliorative effect of CaCl2
on growth, membrane permeability and nutrient uptake in Atriplex halimus
subsp. schweinfurthii grown at high (NaCl) salinity. Desalination
. 249: 163–166.
Omidi, A.H., M.R. Shahsavari, A. Alhani, and B. P. Eslam. 2008. Padideh, a new safflower cultivar. Seed and Plant
. 24(1): 215-219. (In Persian).
Rodrigo-Moreno, A., N. Andres-Colas, C. Poschenrieder, B. Gunse, L. Penarrubia, and S. Shabala. 2013. Calcium- and potassium-permeable plasma membrane transporters are activated by copper in Arabidopsis root tips: linking copper transport with cytosolic hydroxyl radical production. Plant, Cell and Environment
. 36(4): 844-855.
Sadeghi Lotfabadi S., M. Kafi, and H.R. Khazaei. 2010. Effects of calcium, potassium and method of application on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor
L.) morphological and physiological traits in the presence of salinity. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation
. 24(2): 385-393.
Shabala, S., O. Bamurina, and L. Newman. 2000. Ion-specific mechanisms of osmoregulation in been mesophyll cells. Journal of Biology Sciences
. 331: 215-225.
Sharaf, M. 2008. Tolerance of five genotypes of lentil to NaCl-salinity stress. New York Science Journal
. 1(3): 70-80.
Singh, L., and B. Pal. 1995. Effect of water salinity on yield and yield attributing characters of blond Psyllium. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences
. 65: 503-505.
Song, J., and Q. Fujiyama. 1996. Amelioration effect of potassium on rice and tomato subject to sodium salinization. Journal of Plant Nutrient and Soil Science
. 42: 493- 501.
Sultana, N., T. Ikeda, and M. A. Kashem. 2001. Effect of foliar spray of nutrient solutions on photosynthesis, dry matter accumulation and yield in seawater-stressed rice. Environmental and Experimental Botany
. 46: 129–140.
Tavallali, V., M. Rahemi, and B. Panahi. 2008. Calcium induces salinity tolerance in pistachio rootstocks. Fruits
. 63: 201-208.
Uddling, J., J. Gelang-Alfredsson, K. Piikki, and H. Pleijel. 2007. Evaluating the relationship between leaf chlorophyll concentration and SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter readings. Photosynthesis Research
. 91: 37–46.
Wang, D., M. C. Shannon, and C. M. Grieve. 2001. Salinity reduces radiation absorption and use efficiency in soybean. Field Crops Research
. 69: 267-277.
Wang, X.S., and J.G. Han. 2009. Changes of proline content, activity, and active isoforms of antioxidative enzymes in two alfalfa cultivars under salt stress. Agricultural Sciences in China
. 8(4): 431-440.
Warrence, N., K.E. Pearson, and J.W. Bavder. 2002. The basic of salinity and sodicity effect on soil physical properties. Journal of Plant Physiology
. 25: 64-70.
Weatherely, P.E. 1950. Studies in water relation on cotton plants, the field measurement of water deficit in leaves. New Phytologist
. 49: 81- 87.
Zayed, B.A., A.K.M. Salem, and H.M. El-Sharkawy. 2011. Effect of different micronutrient treatments on rice (Oryza sativa
L.) growth and yield under saline soil conditions. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences
. 7(2): 179-184.
Zheng, Y., J. Aijun, N. Tangyuan, J. Xud, L. Zengjia, and J. Gaoming. 2008. Potassium nitrate application alleviates sodium chloride stress in winter wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Journal of Plant Physiology
. 165: 1455-1465.