پاسخ شاخص های فیزیولوژیک ارقام گوجه فرنگی (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) به مصرف کودهای دامی، شیمیایی و تلفیقی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

3 مربی گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر مصرف کودهای دامی، شیمیایی و تلفیقی بر عملکرد و برخی شاخص‏ های فیزیولوژیکی ارقام مختلف گوجه فرنگی، آزمایشی به­ صورت کرت‏ های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک ‏های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند در سال زراعی 1393 انجام شد. در این آزمایش از سه نوع کود دامی، شیمیایی و تلفیقی به عنوان عامل اصلی و سه رقم اوربانا، سوپر چیف و سوپر مجار به عنوان عامل فرعی استفاده شدند. شاخص­ های رشد مورد بررسی شامل شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد محصول، سرعت رشد نسبی و سرعت ماده­ سازی خالص بودند و نمونه ­ها پس از استقرار گیاه، هر 10روز یک ‏بار مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که اثرات کود و رقم بر این شاخص‏ ها معنی­ دار شدند. بیشترین (3.56) و کمترین (3) شاخص سطح برگ به ترتیب به تیمار کود شیمیایی و کود دامی تعلق داشتند. همچنین، رقم اوربانا نیز با میزان LAI برابر (4) بیشترین و رقم سوپر چیف با LAI برابر (2.78) کمترین شاخص سطح برگ را به خود اختصاص دادند. در این آزمایش، بیشترین سرعت رشد محصول (CGR) در اثر استفاده از تیمارهای کود تلفیقی در رقم اوربانا و کمترین آن در اثر کود دامی در رقم سوپر چیف مشاهده شدند. همچنین، گیاهان تحت تیمار کود شیمیایی بالاترین سرعت رشد نسبی را تولید کردند و گیاهان با تیمارهای کود تلفیقی و کود دامی بعد از آن قرار گرفتند. در انتهای فصل رشد بیشترین عملکرد مربوط به مصرف کود شیمیایی و پس از آن تلفیقی بودند. این آزمایش می‏ تواند در جهت نقش کودهای آلی در تولید مواد غذایی با کمیت و کیفیت مطلوب مورد استفاده کشاورزان این منطقه و سایر مناطق مشابه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of Some Physiological Parameters of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Varieties to Manure, Chemical Fertilizer and Their Combined Uses

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajjad Nasiri 1
  • Sohrab Mahmoudi 2
  • Mohammad Ali Behdani 2
  • Alireza Samadzadeh 3
1 M.sc. of Agronomy, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
3 Staff Member, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effects of manure, chemical fertilizers and their combined uses on yield and some physiological parameters of tomato varieties, an experiment was conducted as split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Birjand in 2014. In this experiment fertilizer with 3 levels (manure, chemical fertilizer and their combined uses) asseigned to main plots and three tomato varieties (Orbana, Super chief and Super majar) to sub plots. Physiological parameters under study were LAI, CGR, RGR and NAR which measured every 10 days after the seedling establishment. The results showed significant effects of fertilizer and varieties on these parameters. The highest leaf area index (3.56) was obtained by the used of chemical fertilizers and the lowest (3) by the application of manure. Orbana possessed the highest LAI (4) and Super chief the lowest LAI (2.78). In this experiment, the highest crop growth rate (CGR) belonged to Orbana by the use of combined application of fertilizers and the lowest to Super Chief by the use of manure. Plants treated with chemical fertilizer had the highest relative growth rate (RGR) and those treated with their combined application and manure stood in the lower categories. The highest total tomato yield was related to the use of chemical fertilizer and the lowest to the use of combined fertilizers. The results of this experiment can be used to emphasize the role of organic fertilizers to produce highest tomato yield, both in quantity and quality, in this region and other similar regions in the country.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chemical Fertilizer
  • leaf area index
  • manure
  • Net assimilation rate
  • Tomato
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