ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی برخی صفات مورفولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک ژنوتیپ های گندم نان در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی گروه کشاورزی، واحد اردبیل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

تنوع ژنتیکی برخی صفات مورفولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک گندم نان در 42 ژنوتیپ در مزرعه تحقیقات کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اردبیل در دو شرایط محیطی جداگانه (بدون اعمال تنش خشکی و تنش خشکی آخر فصل) در قالب طرح بلوک ­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. در زمان ­های مناسب از صفات مختلف مورفولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک یادداشت­برداری به­ عمل آمد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثرات متقابل سطوح آبیاری×ژنوتیپ بر ارتفاع بوته، تعداد پنجه ­های نابارور، طول سنبله، نسبت پدانکل به ارتفاع بوته، تعداد سنبله در مترمربع و عملکرد دانه معنی ­دار بودند. ژنوتیپ شماره 35 (4057) با میانگین 6313 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین عملکرد دانه را تولید کرد. رگرسیون چند متغیره خطی نشان داد که صفات تعداد دانه در سنبله، تعداد گره و وزن سنبله حدود 58 درصد از تغییرات میانگین عملکرد را در بین ژنوتیپ­ ها در شرایط تنش خشکی آخر فصل توجیه می­ کنند. تعداد گره بیشترین اثر مستقیم (0.438) را بر عملکرد دانه داشت. همچنین، اثرات مستقیم تعداد دانه در سنبله با عملکرد مثبت (0.135) و وزن سنبله با عملکرد منفی (0.345-) بودند. اثر غیرمستقیم تعداد گره از طریق وزن سنبله بیشتر از اثر غیرمستقیم وزن سنبله از طریق تعداد گره بر عملکرد بود. در تجزیه عامل­ ها، شش عامل در کل 75.80 درصد تغییرات را تبیین کردند. عامل اول تا ششم به ­ترتیب 21.32، 18.13، 9.72، 9.62، 9.4 و 7.6 درصد از تغییرات کل را توجیه نمودند. تجزیه خوشه ­ای بر اساس روش وارد با استفاده از ضریب مجذور فاصله اقلیدسی، ژنوتیپ ­ها را به پنج گروه تقسیم بندی کرد. نتایج این بررسی حاکی از آن است که صفاتی مانند تعداد دانه در سنبله، تعداد گره و وزن سنبله را می­ توان به عنوان شاخص انتخاب عملکرد در برنامه ­های به­ نژادی و به­ منظور بهبود عملکرد دانه گندم نان در مناطق دارای تنش خشکی آخر فصل مورد استفاده قرار داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Genetic Variation of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Some Morphological and Physiological Characteristics under Drought Stress Condition

نویسنده [English]

  • Reza Shahryari
Staff member, Department of Agriculture, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

The present study was conducted in the agricultural research farm of Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch, to investigate genetic variation of some bread wheat genotypes for some morpho-physiological traits under separate environmental conditions (drought stress and without drought stress). Results from analysis of variance showed that the interaction of “irrigation levels × genotypes” on traits like plant height, infertile tillers number, spike length, peduncle to plant height ratio, spike number per m2 and grain yield were significant. Genotype No. 35 (4057) produced the highest (6.3 ton/ha) grain yield. Linear multivariable regression revealed that traits such as grain numbers per spike, node number and spike weight accounted for about 58% of overall mean yield among the genotypes under terminal drought stress condition. Node number had the highest direct effect (0.438) on grain yield. The results, also, showed that the direct effect of grain number per spike on yield was positive (0.135) while spike weight on yield was negative (-0.345). Direct effect of node number on yield by spike weight was higher than indirect effect of spike weight by node number. Based on the factor analysis, 75.80% of total variations were explained by 6 factors. The first up to the sixth factors accounted for 21.32, 18.13, 9.72, 9.62, 9.4 and 7.6% of the total variations respectively. Furthermore, cluster analysis, based on Ward method and by using Euclidian squared distance, classified the genotypes into five groups. Results from this study suggest that traits such as grain number per spike, node number and spike weight can be used as a selection criteria in breeding programs for higher grain yield of bread wheat in the regions where plants may be subject to terminal drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bread Wheat
  • Genetic variation
  • Multivariable analyses
  • Terminal drought stress
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