نقش آللوپاتیک اسانس برگ بو (Laurus nobilis L) بر جوانه زنی بذر و شاخص قدرت گیاهچه گاوپنبه (Abutilon theopharasti L) و پیچک صحرایی (Convolvulus arvensis L)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه نقش آللوپاتیک غلظت­ های مختلف صفر، 100، 200، 300 و 400 قسمت در میلیون اسانس گیاه دارویی برگ بو بر جوانه­ زنی و استقرار اولیه علف­ های هرز گاو پنبه و پیچک صحرایی آزمایشی در سال 1392 در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز اجرا شد. بر اساس یافته­ ها، میزان جوانه­ زنی بذر در تیمار آب مقطر 73.3 درصد و در میانگین تیمارهای برخوردار از اسانس 64.7 درصد بودند. کمترین طول بوته در تیمار 400 قسمت در میلیون اسانس مشاهده شد. سطح برگ تک بوته علف­ هرز از حداکثر 13.5 سانتی ­متر مربع در تیمار شاهد تا حداقل 9.7 سانتی­ متر مربع در میانگین غلظت­ های 300 و 400 قسمت در میلیون اسانس تغییر کرد. وزن خشک علف­ هرز در صورت تیمار بذر با غلظت­ های 300 و 400 قسمت در میلیون اسانس برگ بو تا بیش از دو برابر تیمار شاهد کاهش یافت. گیاهچه­ های تحت تیمار با غلظت­ های 100 و 200 قسمت در میلیون اسانس و نیز شاهد (بدون تیمار) در مقایسه با میانگین دو تیمار حایز کمترین شاخص ویگور، به ­ترتیب از بنیه 1.5، 1.5 و 2.6 برابری برخوردار بودند. بر اساس تجزیه رگرسیون سه ﺻﻔﺖ درصد جوانه­ زنی، سطح برگ و وزن خشک تک بوته تأﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻨـﻲداری روی شاخص قدرت گیاهچه داﺷـﺘﻨﺪ. اسانس برگ بو از قابلیت بالایی در کنترل علف­ های هرز گاوپنبه و پیچک صحرایی، به­ ویژه در غلظت­ های بیشتر از 400 قسمت در میلیون برخوردار بود که می­ تواند به عنوان راهکاری در مسیر سنتز علف ­کش ­های بیولوژیک به منظور کنترل غیرشیمیایی این دو علف­هرز در مزارع برخی از گیاهان زراعی مد نظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Allelopathic Effect of Essential Oil of Sweet Bay (Laurus nobilis L.) on Germination and Seedling Vigor of Velvetleaf (Abutilon theopharasti L.) and Field Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.)

نویسنده [English]

  • Bahram Mirshekari
Associate Prof., Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study allelopatic effect of sweet bay essence concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm) on germination and early establishment of velvetleaf and field bindweed an experiment was conducted at Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran, during 2013. Results indicated that germination percentage of non-treated seeds was 73.3%, and that of treated seeds 64.7%. Plant height at 400 ppm concentration was shorter than other treatments. Mean leaf area per plant of weeds ranged from 13.5 cm2 in control up to 9.7 cm2 in 300 ppm and 400 ppm concertrations. Dry weight per weed plant of the seeds treated with 300 and 400 ppm concentrations was twice lower than of untreated seeds. Vigor index of seedling from seeds treated with 100 and 200 ppm essence and control were 1.5, 1.5 and 2.6 times higher than those treated with 300-400 ppm, respectively. Regression analysis showed that germination percentage, leaf area and dry weight per plant did have higher effect on seedling vigor index. It can be concluded that essential oil of sweet-bay may have potential in controlling weeds, especially in the higher concentrations. Therefor, it could be used in the synthesis of bioherbicides compounds to control weeds.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Essence concentration
  • Germination percentage
  • Regression
  • seedling vigor index
  • Sweet bay (Laurus nobilis)

Abdul Raoof, K.M., and M. Badruzzaman Siddiqui. 2012. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia on some weed plants. Analele Universităţii din Oradea - Fascicula Biologie. 16: 29-34.

Amiri, I., L. Hamrouni, M. Hanana, and B. Jamoussi. 2012. Herbicidal potential of essential oils from three mediterranean trees on different weeds. Indian Journal of Allelopathy. 8: 3-12.

Arminante, F., E. De Falco, V. De Feo, L. De Martino, E. Mancini, and E. Quaranta. 2006. Allelopathic activity of essential oils from mediterranean Labiatae family plants. Acta Horticulturae. 723: 347-356.

Bajalan, I., K. Estaki Oregani, A. Amir Moezi, and A. Gholami. 2013. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extract from Salvia officinalis L. on seed germination of wheat. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 3 (6): 485-488.

Brevedan, R.E., and D.B. Egli. 2003. Short periods of water stress during seed filling, leaf senescence and yield of soybean under weed interference. Crop Science. 43(20): 83–88.

Chen, H., T. Hu, X. Wu, H. Hu, L. Tu, Y. Pan, and F. Zeng. 2013. Decomposition of blue gum (Eucalyptus maidenii) leaf litter may accelerate the maturation and senescence of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8 (6): 532-540.

Chon, S.U., H.G., Jang, D.K. Kim., Y.M. Kim., H.O. Boo., and Y.J. Kim. 2005. Aellopathic potential in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants. Scientia Horticulturae. 106: 309-317.

Choya, R., and S.K. Sharma. 2011. Allelopathic effects of Lantana camara (Linn) on regeneration in Fumaria hygrometrica. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 1: 177-182.

Devi, O.I., B.K. Dutta, and P. Choudhury. 2013. Allelopathy effect of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum viscosum, Ageratum conyzoides and Parthenium hysterophorus on the seed germination and seedling vigour of Chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) in vitro. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 5 (1): 37-40.

Fanaei, M., A. Aboutalebi, and S.A. Mohammadi. 2013. Allelopathic effects of Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) extract and essence on plantlet growth of three weed species. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. 4 (4): 647-649.

Gniazdowska, A., and R. Bogatek. 2005. Allelopathic interactions between some of medicinal and crop plants under laboratory conditions. Acta Physiologica Plantarum. 27: 395-407.

Hassannejad, S., and S. Ghafari. 2013. Allelopathic effects of some Lamiaceae species on seed germination and seedling growth of dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck.). International Journal of Biosciences. 3: 9-14.

Hegab, M.M., S.E.A. Khodary, O. Hammouda, and H.R. Ghareib. 2008. Allelopathic potentiality of origan (Origanum majorana) on germination and some metabolic activities associated with growth of wheat seedlings. African Journal of Biotechnology. 7 (7): 884-892.

Kadioglu, I, and Y. Yanar. 2004. Allelopathic effects of plant extracts against seed germination of weeds. Asian Journal of Plant Science. 3 (4): 472-475.

Kalinova, S., I. Golubinova, A. Hristoskov, and A. Ilieva. 2012. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from root systems of johnson grass on seed germination and initial development of soybean, pea and vetch. Allelopathy Journal. 34 (2): 111-119.

Kremer, R.J., and M. ben-hammouda. 2009. Physiological study of allelopathic medicinal plants and wheat weeds under greenhouse conditions. Allelopathy Journal. 24 (2): 225-242.

Larsen, S.U., and C.Andreasen. 2004. Light and heavy turf-grass seeds differ in germination percentage and mean germination thermal time. Crop Science. 44: 1710-1720.

Maharaj, S., and J. Prabhakaran. 2013. Allelopathic potential of Chrozophora rottleri (geis.) A. juss. on germination and growth of some rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. International Journal of Advances in Pharmacy, Biology and Chemistry. 2 (1): 44-49.

Mirshekari, B. 2012. Weeds identification. Publications of Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran. (In Persian).

Nishida, N., S. Tamotsu, N. Nagata, C. Saito, and A. Sakai. 2005. Allelopathic effects of atile monoterpenoids produced by Salvia leucophylla: Inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in the root apical meristem of Brassica campestris seedlings. Journal of Chemistry and Ecology. 31: 1187–1203.

Patil, C.K 2007. Allelopathic effect of major weeds on onion (Alium cepa L.) primary growth. University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. India.

Piani, B., and B. Noguchi. 2012. Allelopathy and its potential for weeds control: A Review Research. Journal of Biological Research. 3 (1): 21-29.

Pukclai, P., and H. Kato-Noguchi. 2009. Allelopathic potential of Tinospora tuberculata Beumee on twelve test plant species. Journal of Plant Biology Research. 1(1): 19-28.

Salam, I.U., M. Ahmed, and S. Tariq-Ali. 2011. Allelopathic effect of scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis Arvensis) on seed germination and radical elongation of mung bean and pearl millet. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 43 (1): 351-355.

Viecelli, C.A., and M. Noguchi. 2009. Laurus nobilis allelopathy potential on Lactuca sativa germination and growth. Semina: Ciencias Agrárias. 30: 39-46.

Yang, G., F. Wan, W. Liu, and J. Guo. 2008. Influence of two allelochemicals from Ageratina adenophora Sprengel on ABA, IAA and ZR contents in roots of upland rice seedlings. Allelopathy Journal. 21 (2): 253-262.

Zeynal Zadeh Tabrizi, H., and M. Gaffari. 2009. Regression analysis of seed and oil yield single cross sunflower hybrids. Research Journal of Agronomy Science. 6: 41-54.