کشت مخلوط لگوم ها و ذرت با مصرف کود اوره

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، واحد نراق، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نراق، ایران

2 گروه کشاورزی، واحد فراهان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، فراهان، ایران

چکیده

کاربرد روش­ های تلفیقی تغذیه گیاهی می ­تواند باعث افزایش عملکرد کمّی و کیفی محصولات کشاورزی و کاهش آلودگی­ های زیست محیطی اکوسیستم­ های زراعی شود. بنابراین، به­ منظور بررسی اثرات مصرف کود نیتروژنه و چند کشتی همزمان لگوم­ ها بر عملکرد دانه و اجزای عملکرد ذرت، آزمایشی در سال 1392 به­ صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک ­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی استان مرکزی انجام شد. تیمارهای مورد استفاده شامل مصرف کود اوره در چهار سطح: N0= عدم مصرف ازکود اوره (شاهد)، N1، N2 و N3 به­ ترتیب مصرف 75، 150 و 225 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود اوره و چند کشتی همزمان با گیاهان لگوم در چهار سطح شامل: S1، S2، S3 و S4 به ­ترتیب کشت ذرت خالص (شاهد)، کشت ذرت + نخود، کشت ذرت + لوبیا چشم بلبلی و کشت ذرت + ماش سبز بودند. صفاتی مانند تعداد برگ سبز، عملکرد دانه ذرت، ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد ردیف دانه در بلال، تعداد دانه در ردیف، کارآیی مصرف نیتروژن ذرت، بیوماس لگوم ­ها، درصد نیترژن گیاه و وزن صد دانه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر سطوح تیمار مصرف کود نیتروژن بر صفات تعداد برگ سبز، عملکرد دانه ذرت، ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد دانه در ردیف، کارآیی مصرف نیتروژن ذرت، بیوماس لگوم­ ها و درصد نیترژن گیاه معنی­ دار بودند. همچنین، اثر تیمار چند کشتی همزمان لگوم ­ها نیز بر صفات عملکرد دانه ذرت، کارآیی مصرف نیتروژن ذرت، بیوماس لگوم­ ها و درصد نیتروژن گیاه معنی­ دار برآورد شدند. میانگین عملکرد ذرت با مصرف 225 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار ( 37/7 تن در هکتار) با میانگین تولید در صورت مصرف 150 کیلوگرم اوره در یک گروه آماری قرار دارند و تیمار استفاده از 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود اوره با تولید 5.47 تن در هکتار (که با تیمار شاهد در یک گروه آماری قرار داشتند) و کمترین مقدار عملکرد دانه تولیدی را به خود اختصاص دادند. همچنین، در میان سطوح تیمار چند کشتی همزمان نیز بیشترین و کمترین مقدار عملکرد دانه با میانگین 7.30 و 6.01 تن در هکتار به ­ترتیب مربوط به کشت خالص ذرت و تیمار کشت همزمان ذرت + ماش سبز بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mixed Cropping of Legumes and Maize by the Use of Urea

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeil Alibakhshi 1
  • Mohammad Mirzakhani 2
1 M.Sc Student in Agronomy, Naragh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Naragh, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Farahan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Farahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers and mixed cropping of legumes and maize on its grain yield and yield component of corn in Arak, an experiment was carried at the Agricultural Research Center of Markazi Province in 2013. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was performed. Treatments were four levels of urea (N0= control, N1= 75 kg.ha-1, N2= 150 kg.ha-1, N3= 225 kg.ha-1) and mixed cropping with four levels (S1= planting corn, S2= planting corn + chickpea, S3= planting corn + cowpea, S4= planting corn + mung bean). Plot consisted of 4 rows, 6 m long with 60 cm between rows space and 20 cm between plants on the rows, and S.C 704 corn hybrid was used. In this study characteristics such as: plant height, number of green leaf, grain yield, number of row per ear, number of grain per ear row, nitrogen use efficiency, biomasses of legumes, nitrogen percentage and 1000 grain weight were assessed. Results indicated that the effect of different levels of urea on plant height, number of green leaf, grain yield, number of grain per row, nitrogen use efficiency, legumes biomass and nitrogen percentage were significant. Effect of mixed cropping on characteristics like grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency, biomasses of legumes nitrogen percentage was also significant. Highest and lowest grain yield (7.37 and 5.47 t.ha-1) were obtained with the use of 225 and 75 kg.ha-1 urea, respectively. The highest and lowest grain yield (7.30 and 6.01 t.ha-1) belonged to sole cropping at corn and mixed cropping of corn + mung bean, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • corn
  • Grain yield
  • Legumes
  • nitrogen
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