ارزیابی عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و اسانس همیشه بهار (Calendula officinalis L) با کاربرد نیتروژن و ورمی کمپوست

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات،واحد یادگار امام خمینی (ره) شهرری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد گروه زراعت، واحد یادگار امام خمینی (ره) شهرری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات،واحد یادگار امام خمینی (ره) شهرری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مشکلات فراوان حاصل از مصرف کودهای شیمیایی نیتروژنه در تولیدات گیاهی، صاحب ­نظران را بر آن داشته تا که از روش­ های جایگزین و پاک در راستای حرکت به سمت کشاورزی ارگانیک استفاده نمایند و در این میان مصرف کودهای آلی، ب ه­ویژه ورمی­ کمپوست، از جمله اولویت­ ها محسوب می­ شود. به­ منظور بررسی اثر مصرف مقادیر مختلف کود نیتروژن و ورمی­ کمپوست بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و میزان اسانس گیاه دارویی همیشه بهار آزمایشی در بهار سال 1392 در منطقه شهرری اجرا گردید. این آزمایش به­ صورت طرح کرت­ های خرد شده در قالب بلوک­ های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. در این تحقیق مصرف کود شیمیایی نیتروژن در 4 سطح (0، 60، 120 و 180 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار) به ­عنوان عامل اصلی و ورمی­ کمپوست در3 سطح (0، 10 و 20 تن در هکتار) به­ عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج به­ دست آمده نشان داد که گیاهان تیمار شده با نیتروژن در سطح 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار نسبت به سایر مقادیر مصرف، نتایج مطلوب­ تری را بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و محتوی اسانس اندام­ های هوایی به همراه داشت. همچنین، اثر کاربرد ورمی­ کمپوست در سطوح 10 و 20 تن در هکتار بیشتر از تیمار عدم مصرف بود. نتایج مقایسه میانگین­ های اثر متقابل عوامل آزمایشی نشان داد که بالاترین عملکردهای دانه (1567 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، بیولوژیک (6664 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و اسانس (18.66 کیلوگرم درهکتار) با مصرف 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن و20 تن ورمی­ کمپوست در هکتار به­ دست آمدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil Content of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) with the Use of Nitrogen and Vermicompost

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Pazoki 1
  • Hamidreza Tavakoli Haghighat 2
  • Abolfazl Rashidi Asl 3
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant breeding, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Agronomy and Plant breeding, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Environmenal problems resulting from application of nitrogen fertilizers in the production plant materials led agricultural specialists to use clean and alternative methods to towards the organic farming and use of organic fertilizers. In this study, thus, the effect of nitrogen and vermicompost fertilizer rates on yield, yield components, essential oil content and some morphological traits of marigold was studied in a split plot experiment based on completely randomized blocks design with 3 replications in Shahr-e-Rey region during 2013 growing season. Nitrogen rates with 3 levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg.ha-1) were assigned to main plots and vermicompost with 3 levels (0, 10, and 20 t.ha-1) to the sub plots. Mean comparison of simple effects indicated that the plants treated with 120 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer and 20 t.ha-1 organic fertilizer vermicompost produced higher trait values under study than control (non application of vermincompost). Interaction effect of experimented factors was significant on all traits under evaluation. Thus, highest seed yield (1567 kg.ha-1), biological yield (6664 kg.ha-1) and essential oil yield (8.85 kg.ha-1) obtained by the application of 120 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer and 20 t.ha-1 varmicompost. Based on the results obtained it could be said that nitrogen and vermicompost may improve seed and biological yield and yield components of marigold.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.)
  • Morphological traits
  • nitrogen
  • vermicompost
  • yield
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Ameri, A., M. Nassiri, and P. Rezvani. 2010. Effects of different nitrogen levels and plant density on flower, essential oils and extract production and nitrogen use efficiency of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L). Iranian Journal of Crop Research. 5(2): 315-324. (In Persian).

Anwar, M., D.D. Patra, S. Chand, K. Alpesh, A.A. Naqvi, and S.P.S. Khanuja. 2005. Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth, herb and oil yield, nutrient accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis.36: 1737-1746.

Arancon, N.Q., P.A. Galvis, and Edwards. A. 2005. Suppression of insect pest populations and damage to plants by vermicomposts. Bioresource Technology. 96(10): 1137-1142.

Azizi, M., F. Rezvani, M. Hassanzadeh Khayyat, A. Lakzian, and H. Nemati. 2008. Effect of vermicompost and irrigation on morphological traits and essential oil of german chamomile (Matricaria recutita) Goral variety. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 24(1): 82-93. (In Persian).

Copetta A., G. Lingua, G. Berta, L. Bardi, and G. Ma-soero. 2006. Three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differently affect growth, distribution of glan- dular trichomes and essential oil composition, in Ocimum basilicum var. Genovese. Acta Horticulturae. 723: 151-156.

 Dusane, R.D., S.A. Khanvilkay, and V.M. Kanade .1988. Agronomic studies on the effect of various inputs on the yield of mustard (Brassica juncea L). Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research. 6(1): 33-37.

Freitas, M.S., M.A. Martins, I. Curcino, and I.J. Vieira. 2004. Yield and quality of essential oils of Mentha arvensis in response to in oculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 39: 887–894.

Hashemimajd K., M. Kalbasi, A. Golchin, and H. Shariatmadari. 2004. Comparison of vermicompost and composts as potting media for growth of tomatoes. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 27(6): 1107-1124.

Garg, P., A. Gupta, and S. Satya. 2006. Vermicomposting of different types of waste using Eisenia foetida: A comparative study. Bioresource Technology. 97: 391- 395.

Hormoznejad, P. 2005. Nitrogen and gibberellic acid effects on yield and active ingredients of valerian. Master's thesis. Tarbiat Modares University. 168 pp. (In Persian).

Kathi, J., and A. Kemper. 1999. Calendula. The center for holistic and pediatric education and research. The Longwood Herbal Task Force. (http://www.mcp.edu/herbal/default. htm).

Kapoor, R., B. Giri, and K.G. Mukerji. 2002. Glomus macrocarpum, a potential bioinoculant to improve essential oil quality and concentration in dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and carum (Trachyspermum ammi L.Sprague). World Journal of MicrobiologyandBiotechnology. 18: 459–463.

Kumawat, P.D., N.L. Jat, and S.S. Yadavi. 2006. Effect of organic manure and nitrogen fertilization on growth, yield and economics of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Indian Journal ofAgricultural Sciences. 76: 226-229.

 Liuc, J., and B. Pank. 2005. Effect of vermicompost and fertility levels on growth and oil yield of Roman chamomile. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 46: 63-69.

Majidian, M., A. Ghalavand, A. Kamkar Haghighi, and N.A. Karimian. 2008.  Effects of drought stress, nitrogen fertilizer and organic manure on chlorophyll meter measurement, grain yield and yield components of corn KSC 704. Journal of Crop Science. 10(3): 303-330. (In Persian).

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Rashidi, A., A. Ghalavand, and M. Baniasadi. 2002. Effect of different nitrogen amounts and irrigation interval on maize yield and growth parameters.7th Iranian Agronomy and Plant breeding Congress, Karaj. Iran. pp178. (In Persian).  

Rezvani Moghaddam, P., A.A. Mohammad Abadi, and Z. Boroumandzadeh. 2004. Effect of planting date and different fertilizers treatment on yield, yield components and oil content of castor bean. Proceedings of the Third Conference of medicinal plants. pp 151. (In Persian).

Roy, D.K., and B.P. Singh. 2006. Effect of level and time of nitrogen application with and without vermicompost on yield, yield attributes and quality of malt barley (Hordeum vulgare). Indian Journal of Agronomy. 51: 40-42.

Salehi, G. 2001. The effect of different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and yield components of black cumin. Master's thesis. 146 pp. (In Persian).

Samsam Shariat, H. 2005. Selection of medicinal plants. Manny publications. 264 PP. (In Persian).

Sathe, T.V. 2005. Vermiculture and organic farming, Days publishing house, Dehli, India. 131pp.

Schulz, V., R. Hansel, and V.E. Tyler. 1998. Rational phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. 19 pp.

Sharma, A.K. 2003. Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Agrobios, India. 106 pp.

Taheri, Gh., A. Jafarnejad, and H. Tavakoli. 2006. The effect of different nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer levels on fennel seed production. Proceedings of the Third Conference of Medicinal Plants. 79 pp (In Persian).

Zaller, J.G. 2007. Vermicompost as a substitute for peat in potting media: Effects on germination, biomass allocation, yields and fruit quality of three tomato varieties. Scientia Horticulturae. 112: 191-199.

Zeinali, H., H. Husseini, and A. Halaji. 2006. The effects of nitrogen fertilizer levels and harvest time in peppermint. Proceedings of the Third Conference of Medicinal plants. 121 pp. (In Persian).

·   Akbarinia, A., and F. Sefidkon. 2006. Effect of different nutrition systems on seed yield and essential oil quality of Ajowan. Third Congress of Horticultural Sciences, Tehran University. 318 PP. (In Persian).

·   Ameri, A., M. Nassiri, and P. Rezvani. 2010. Effects of different nitrogen levels and plant density on flower, essential oils and extract production and nitrogen use efficiency of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L). Iranian Journal of Crop Research. 5(2): 315-324. (In Persian).

·   Anwar, M., D.D. Patra, S. Chand, K. Alpesh, A.A. Naqvi, and S.P.S. Khanuja. 2005. Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth, herb and oil yield, nutrient accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis.36: 1737-1746.

·   Arancon, N.Q., P.A. Galvis, and Edwards. A. 2005. Suppression of insect pest populations and damage to plants by vermicomposts. Bioresource Technology. 96(10): 1137-1142.

·    Azizi, M., F. Rezvani, M. Hassanzadeh Khayyat, A. Lakzian, and H. Nemati. 2008. Effect of vermicompost and irrigation on morphological traits and essential oil of german chamomile (Matricaria recutita) Goral variety. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 24(1): 82-93.(In Persian).

·   Copetta A., G. Lingua, G. Berta, L. Bardi, and G. Ma-soero. 2006. Three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differently affect growth, distribution of glan- dular trichomes and essential oil composition, in Ocimum basilicum var. Genovese. Acta Horticulturae. 723: 151-156.

·   Dusane, R.D., S.A. Khanvilkay, and V.M. Kanade .1988. Agronomic studies on the effect of various inputs on the yield of mustard (Brassica juncea L). Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research. 6(1): 33-37.

·   Freitas, M.S., M.A. Martins, I. Curcino, and I.J. Vieira. 2004. Yield and quality of essential oils of Mentha arvensis in response to in oculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 39: 887–894.

·   Hashemimajd K., M. Kalbasi, A. Golchin, and H. Shariatmadari. 2004. Comparison of vermicompost and composts as potting media for growth of tomatoes. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 27(6): 1107-1124.

·   Garg, P., A. Gupta, and S. Satya. 2006. Vermicomposting of different types of waste using Eisenia foetida: A comparative study. Bioresource Technology. 97: 391- 395.

·   Hormoznejad, P. 2005. Nitrogen and gibberellic acid effects on yield and active ingredients of valerian. Master's thesis. Tarbiat Modares University. 168 pp. (In Persian).

·   Kathi, J., and A. Kemper. 1999. Calendula. The center for holistic and pediatric education and research. The Longwood Herbal Task Force. (http://www.mcp.edu/herbal/default. htm).

·   Kapoor, R., B. Giri, and K.G. Mukerji. 2002. Glomus macrocarpum, a potential bioinoculant to improve essential oil quality and concentration in dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and carum (Trachyspermum ammi L.Sprague). World Journal of MicrobiologyandBiotechnology. 18: 459–463.

·   Kumawat, P.D., N.L. Jat, and S.S. Yadavi. 2006. Effect of organic manure and nitrogen fertilization on growth, yield and economics of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Indian Journal ofAgricultural Sciences. 76: 226-229.

·   Liuc, J., and B. Pank. 2005. Effect of vermicompost and fertilitylevels on growth and oil yield of Roman chamomile. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 46: 63-69.

·   Majidian, M., A. Ghalavand, A. Kamkar Haghighi, and N.A. Karimian. 2008.  Effects of drought stress, nitrogen fertilizer and organic manure on chlorophyll meter measurement, grain yield and yield components of corn KSC 704. Journal of Crop Science. 10(3): 303-330. (In Persian).

·   Manna, M.C., J.S. Ghosh, and C.L. Anharya. 2003. Comparative efficacy of three epigeicearthworms under different deciduous forestlitters decomposition. Bioresource Technology. 88(3): 197-206.

·   Mirheider, H. 2003. Plant concepts. Using plants to prevent disease treatment. Islamic Culture Publications Office. 277 pp (In Persian).

·   Omidbeigi, R. 2000. Production and processing of medicinal plants. Volume I, Second Edition, Tarahan Publication. 424 pp (In Persian).

·   Pandey, R. 2005. Mangement of Meloidogyne incognita in Artemisia pallens with bio-organics. Phytoparasitica. 33: 304-308.

·   Pirbalouti, A., Gh. Akbari, M. Nasiri Mahalati, and A. Golparvar. 2002. Effect of different nitrogen amounts on nitrogen harvest index, seed protein, yield and yield components of maze. 7th Iranian Agronomy and Plant breeding Congress, Karaj. Iran. PP 470. (In Persian).

·   Rashidi, A., A. Ghalavand, and M. Baniasadi. 2002. Effect of different nitrogen amounts and irrigation interval on maize yield and growth parameters.7th Iranian Agronomy and Plant breeding Congress, Karaj. Iran. pp178. (In Persian).  

·   Rezvani Moghaddam, P., A.A. Mohammad Abadi, and Z. Boroumandzadeh. 2004. Effect of planting date and different fertilizers treatment on yield, yield components and oil content of castor bean. Proceedings of the Third Conference of medicinal plants. pp 151. (In Persian).

·   Roy, D.K., and B.P. Singh. 2006. Effect of level and time of nitrogen application with and without vermicompost on yield, yield attributes and quality of malt barley (Hordeum vulgare). Indian Journal of Agronomy. 51: 40-42.

·   Salehi, G. 2001. The effect of different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and yield components of black cumin. Master's thesis. 146 pp. (In Persian).

·   Samsam Shariat, H. 2005. Selection of medicinal plants. Manny publications. 264 PP. (In Persian).

·   Sathe, T.V. 2005. Vermiculture and organic farming, Days publishing house, Dehli, India. 131pp.

·   Schulz, V., R. Hansel, and V.E. Tyler. 1998. Rational phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. 19 pp.

·   Sharma, A.K. 2003. Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Agrobios, India. 106 pp.

·   Taheri, Gh., A. Jafarnejad, and H. Tavakoli. 2006. The effect of different nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer levels on fennel seed production. Proceedings of the Third Conference of Medicinal Plants. 79 pp (In Persian).

·   Zaller, J.G. 2007. Vermicompost as a substitute for peat in potting media: Effects on germination, biomass allocation, yields and fruit quality of three tomato varieties. Scientia Horticulturae. 112: 191-199.

Zeinali, H., H. Husseini, and A. Halaji. 2006. The effects of nitrogen fertilizer levels and harvest time in peppermint. Proceedings of the Third Conference of Medicinal plants. 121 pp. (In Persian).