ارزیابی رژیم آبیاری و کودهای آلی برعملکرد کمّی و کیفی گاوزبان (Borago officinalis L)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثرات رژیم آبیاری و کودهای آلی (کمپوست و ورمی­ کمپوست) بر درصد موسیلاژ و برخی صفات کیفی گاوزبان آزمایشی به­ صورت کرت­ های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک ­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشگاه زابل اجرا گردید. تیمارها شامل آبیاری در چهار سطح: آبیاری در 100 درصد ظرفیت زراعی (شاهد)،80 درصد ظرفیت زراعی (تنش ملایم) و 60 درصد ظرفیت زراعی (تنش شدید) به ­عنوان عامل اصلی و مصرف کود آلی در سه سطح شامل شاهد (بدون مصرف کود)، 40 تن کمپوست و 4 تن ورمی­ کمپوست در هکتار به­ عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم گیاه و همچنین میزان کلروفیل a، کارتنوئید و کلروفیل کل در اثر تنش خشکی کاهش یافتند ولی در سطوح کاربرد کود کاهش کمتری در صفات فوق مشاهده شد. درصد سدیم در شرایط تنش و کاربرد کمپوست بیشتر بود. با افزایش تنش، کربوهیدرات محلول و درصد موسیلاژ بالا رفت ولی بیشترین درصد موسیلاژ (2.37) از تنش ملایم به ­دست آمد. بیشترین عملکرد خشک کل ( t.ha-1 13.48) در شرایط عدم تنش حاصل شد که با سطح تنش ملایم اختلاف معنی­داری نداشت. کاربرد کودهای آلی، به­ ویژه کمپوست، عملکرد بیشتری تولید کرد. درمجموع، جهت دست­یابی به عملکرد قابل قبول و درصد موسیلاژ بالا در گاوزبان، استفاده از رژیم آبیاری 80 درصد ظرفیت زراعی همراه با کاربرد کمپوست در شرایط آب و هوایی زابل مناسب به نظر می رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Irrigation Regimes and Use of Organic Fertilizers on Qualitive and Quantitive Yield of Borage (Borago officinalis L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rana Gholinezhad 1
  • Alireza Sirousmehr 2
  • Baratali Fakheri 3
1 Former Graduate of Medicinal Plants, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Assistant Prof. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
3 Associate Prof. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effects of irrigation regimes and organic fertilizers (compost and vermicompost) on mucilage percentage and some quality characteristics of borago (Borago officinalis) a field experiment was conducted in a split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Iran during 2012. Irrigation regimes were S1: 100% FC, as control, S2: 80% FC (moderate stress) and S3: 60% FC (severe stress) and application of organic fertilizers: N1: without fertilizer as control, N2: 40 t.ha-1 compost, N3: 4 t.ha-1 vermicompost were assigned to main plots and sub plots, respectively. The results showed that N, P and K, as well as the amount of chlorophyll a, carotenoid and total chlorophyll content decreased with increasing drought stress, but decreasing effects of fertilizers levels on traits were not high. Stress conditions and application of compost increased sodium percentage. By increasing drought stress, soluble carbohydrates and mucilage percent also increased. Highest mucilage percent (2.37) was obtained from moderate stress treatment. Highest total dry yield (13.48 t.ha-1) was also due to non-stress conditions. This was not significantly different mild stress. Application of organic fertilizers, particularly compost, resulted in greater performance. It can be concluded that acceptable yield of dry borage and higher mucilage percent can be obtained from irrigation at 80 percent field capacity and use of compost in Zabol climatic condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • compost
  • Mucilage
  • Stress
  • vermicompost
Akbariniya, A., A. Ghalavand, F. Safidkan, M.B. Rezai, and A. Sharifiashorabadi. 2003. Study on the effect of different rates of chemical fertilizer, manure and mixure of them on seed yield and main, compositions of essential oil of Ajowan (Trachyspermum copticum). Journal of Research and Development. 32: 41-61. (In Persian).

Atiyeh, R.M., N. Arancon, C.A. Edwards, and J.D. Metzger. 2002. Incorporation of earth worm processed organic wastes into greenhouse containermedia for production of marigolds. Bioresource Technology. 81(2): 103-108.

Bajji, M., S. Lutts, and J.M. Kinet. 2000. Physiological changes after exposure toand recovery from PEG induced water deficit in callus cultures issued fromdrum wheat cultivars differing in droughtresistance. Journal of Plant Physiology. 156: 75-83.

Boyer, J.S. 1987. Plant productivity and environment potential for increasing crop plant productivity, genotypic selection. Journal of Science. 218: 443–448.

Caradus, J.R., and D.R. Woodfield. 1997. World checklistof white clover varieties II. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 40: 115-206.

Clay, D.E., R.E. Engel, D.S. Long, and Z. Liu. 2001. Nitrogen and water stress interact carbon-13 discrimination in wheat. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 65: 1823-1828.

Creelman, R.A., H.G. Mason, R.J. Bensen, J.S. Boyer, and J.E. Mullet. 1990. Water deficit and abscisic acid causes inhibition of shoots versus root growth in soybean seedlings: Analysis of growth, sugar accumulation and gene expression. Plant Physiology. 92: 205-214.

Davis, W.J., and E. Volkenburg. 1995. The influence of water deficit on the factors controlling the daily patern of growth of Bean. Journal of Experimental Botany. 54: 987-999.

Emami, A. 1996. Methods of plant analysis. Soil and Water Research Institute. 1(2). 128 pp. (In Persian).

French, R.J., and N.C. Turner. 1991. Water deficit change dry matter partitioning and seed yield in Narrow-Leafed Lupines (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Australian Journal Research. 42: 471-484.

Good, A.G., and S.T. Zaplachiniski. 1994. The effects of drought on free amino acid accumulation and protein synthesis in Brassica napus. Physiologia Plantarum. 90(1): 9-14.

Hoffman, D. 2003. Medical herbalism. Canada, Healing Arts Press, 666 pp.

Jaleel, C.A., P. Manivannan, A. Wahid, M. Farooq, H.J. Al-Jubuti, R. Somaasundrram, and R. Panneerselvam. 2009. Drought stress in plants: A review on morphological characteristics and pigments composition. Journal of Agriculture Biology. 11: 100–105.

Javadi, K., K. Arzani, and H. Ebrahimzade. 2004. Evaluation of soluble carbohydrates and proline in nine Asian pear cultivars (Pyrus serotins R.) under water stress. Iranian Journal of Biology. 17(4): 369-387. (In Persian).

Jiang, Y., and N. Huang. 2001. Drought and heat sress injury to two cool-season turfgrasses in relation toantia xdant metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Crop and Pasture Science. 41: 436-442.

Kafi, M., and A. Mahdavi Damghani. 2000. Mechanisms of resistance of plants to environmental stresses. University of Mashhad. 476 pp. (In Persian).

Kjeldal, S.E. 1998. An investigation of several psychological factors impinging on the perception of fresh fruits and vegetables. Ph.D Thesis. University of New England, Australia.

Kocheki, A., E. Zand, M. Banaiyan Aval, A. Rezvanimoghadam, and A. Mahdavidamghani. 1997. Physiologgical plant ecology. University of Mashhad. (In Persian).

Lalande, R., B. Gagnon, R.R. Simard, and D. Cote. 2000. Soil microbial biomass and enzyme activityfollowing liquid hog manure in a long term fieldtrial. Canadian Journal of Soil Sciences. 80: 263-269.

Laurence, R. 2004. Borage production for oil and gamma-linolenic acid. Rural Industries Development Corporation, Australian Government. RIRDC Nº 04/040. Available at https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/ items/04-040 (Accessed September 2009).

Ludlow, M.M. 1975 Effect of water stress on the decline of leaf net photosynthesis with age. In Environmental and Biological Control of Photosynthesis. Ed. R Marcelle. pp 123–134. Junk, The Hague.

Mahboub Khomami, A. 2004. The effect of liquid bio-fertilizer (Vermiwash) in foliar application on dieffenbachia and Aglaonema nutrition and growth indexes. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 184-188 pp. (In Persian).

Mohammad khani, N., and R. Heidari. 2007. Effects of water stress on respiration, photosynthetic pigment and water content in tow maize cultivar. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science. 10(22): 4022-4028.

Moran, M.S., T.R. Clarke, Y. Inoue, and A. Vidal. 1994. Estimating crop water deficit using the relation between surface-air temperature and specteral vegetation index. Remote Sensing of Environment. 49(3):246-263.

Munns R. 1993. Physiological processes limiting plant growth in saline soil: some dogmas and hypotheses. Plant Cell Environment. 16:15-24.

Nilson, E.T., and D.M. Overcutt. 1996. The Physiology of plants under stress. John Wiley and Sons inc, New York. 355 pp.

Omid Beygi, R. 2010. Production and processing of medicinal plants. Astan Quds Razavi Publications. Vol 4.1th ed. 363-364 pp. (In Persian).

Orozco, F.H., J. Cegarra, L.M. Trujillo, and A. Roig. 1996. Vermicomposting of coffee pulp using theearth worm Eiseniafetida: effects on C and N contents and the availability of nutrients. Biologyand Fertility of Soils. 22: 162-166.

Pereira, J.S., and M.M. Chaves. 1993. Plant water deficits in mediteranianecosystems. In: Water deficits and plant growth. Eds. By Kozlowski, T.T. Vol. IV. pp. 237-251. Academic Press New York.

Rangana, S. 1977. Mannual for analysis of fruit and vegetable products. Tata Mc Graw Hill Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 73-76 pp.

Rantala, P.R., K. Vaajasaari, R. Juvonen, E. Schultz, A. Joutti, and R. Makela-Kurtto. 1999. Composting forest ndustry wastewater sludges for agricultural use. Water Science and Technology. 40: 187-194.

Reddy, A.R., K.V. Chiatanya, and M. Vivekanandan. 2004. Drought induced responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants. Journal of Plant Physiology. 161: 1189-1202.

Rezaenejad, Y., and M. Afyuni. 2001. Effect of organic matter on soil chemical properties and corn yield and elemental uptake. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 4(4):19-29. (In Persian).

Rotblatt, M., and I. Ziment. 2003. Evidence-based herbal medicine. Philadelphia, Hanley and Belfus Inc. 464 pp.

Sadras, V.O., and S.P. Milroy. 1996. Soil–water thresholds for the responses of leaf expansion and gas exchanges: A review. Journal of Field Crops Research. 47: 256-266.

Sairam, R.K., P.S. Deshmukh, and D.C. Saxena. 1998. Role of antioxidant systems in wheat genotypes tolerance to water stress. Journal of Biologia Plantarum. 41(3): 387-394.

Salehi Arjmand, H. 2005. Effect of environmental stresses on accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. Proceedings of the National Conference on the Sustainable Development of Medicinal Plants. Publications of the Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. 305-307 pp. (In Persian).

Samsam Shariat, H. 2007. Medicinal plant extracts and extract active ingredients and methods of identification and evaluation. Publication Mani. Isfahan. 258 pp. (In Persian).

Schutz, M., and E. Fangmeir. 2001. Growth and yield responses of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Minaret) to elevated CO2 and water limitation. Environmental Pollution. 114: 187-194.

Tan, G.Q., and A. Strum. 1999. The Sucrose cleaving enzymes plants are crucial for development, growth and carbon partitioning. Journal of Trends in Plant Science. 4: 401- 407.

Tomar, H.P.S. 1999. Effect of irrigation, N and P on yield and yield attributes of spring sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Tropical Agriculture.76: 228-231.

Turner, L.B. 1990. The extent and pattern of osmotic adjustment in white clover during the development of water stress. Annals on Botany. 66: 721-727.

Wise, R.R., and A.W. Naylor. 1989. Chilling enhanced photo-oxidation, the peoxidative destruction of lipids during chilling injury tophotosynthesis and ultrasracture. Plant Physiology. 83: 278-282.

Yordanov, I., and T. Tsonev. 2003. Plant responses to drought and stress tolerance. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology. Special issue. 189- 206.