نقش گیاهان پوششی در تغییر وزن خشک علف های هرز و عملکرد گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius L) متاثر از منابع کودی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

اثر تیمارهای مختلف کود آلی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد گلرنگ و وزن خشک علف‌های هرز، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1392 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل کاشت مخلوط گیاهان پوششی شبدر قرمز، خلر، ماشک، گاودانه در کنار ردیف‌های گلرنگ و کشت گلرنگ در کرت‌های عاری (شاهد 1) و آلوده به علف‌های هرز (شاهد 2) به عنوان فاکتور اول و کاربرد کود آلی (دامی+زیستی) و سطوح مختلف کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و فسفر به­ ترتیب 100 و 100 درصد، 67 و 63 درصد، 50 و 40 درصد مورد نیاز) به عنوان فاکتور دوم بودند. نتایج نشان داد که وزن خشک علف‌های هرز پهن برگ و باریک برگ تحت تأثیر ترکیب تیماری کشت مخلوط و مصرف کود قرار گرفتند. به­ طوری­که، گیاه پوششی ماشک در تیمار کودی 50 و 40 درصد نیتروژن و فسفر مورد نیاز، ماده خشک علف‌های هرز پهن برگ و باریک برگ را به ترتیب 74/78 و 82/22 درصد در مقایسه با کشت خالص گلرنگ (بدون وجین علف‌های هرز) تحت سیستم کودی 100 درصد کود شیمیایی مصرفی، کاهش داد. حداکثر عملکرد دانه (3431  کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (8239 کیلوگرم در هکتار) گلرنگ در تیمار فاقد کشت مخلوط و در سیستم کودی 100 درصد کود شیمیایی بدست آمد. به­ طور کلی نتایج نشان داد که اثرات رقابتی علف‌های هرز با گلرنگ، در سطوح بالاتر کود شیمیایی بیشتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Changes in Weed Dry Weight and some Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) under Different Sources of Fertilizer and Intercropping

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeid Heydarzadeh 1
  • Jalal Jalilian 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of different organic and chemical fertilizers on weed biomass and some characteristics of safflower, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was done at the Urmia University Reaearch Farm in 2013. Treatments consisted of growing of cover crops (red clover, grass pea, hairy, bitter vetch) along with the safflower rows and two weed control treatments (with and without weed) as a first factor and application of organic manure (cattle manure+biofertilizer) and the different nitrogen and phosphuros fertilizer levels (100 % of recommended chemical fertilizer, 67 and 63 % of recommended N and P, 50 and 40 % of recommended N and P) as second factor. Results showed that the biomass yield of broad and narrow leaf weeds affected by the combined treatments of cover crops and use of fertilizers. The biomass yield of broad and narrow leaf weeds were redused by 74.78, 82.22% under vetch cover crop when 50 and 40% of recommended N and P fertilizers were used, in comparison with sole culture of safflower and use of 100% of recommended chemical fertilizers. The maximum of seed yield (3431 kg.ha-1) and biological yield (8239 kg.ha-1) of safflower obtained from using 100% of recommended chemical fertilizers and without growing cover crops. Results, as a whole, showed that at higher levels of chemical fertilizers the competitive effects of weeds on safflower were higher than lower levels of fertilizers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cover crops
  • Fertilizer systems
  • Oil seed
  • Organic manure
  • Seed yield
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