عنوان مقاله [English]
Due to the dependency of direct seeding of rice on the application of herbicide and possibility of weed resistance to herbicides, the use of mixtures of herbicides is of considerable importance. To evaluate the effectiveness of consecutive applications of some herbicides with lower concentrations, including Thiobencarb, Pretilachlor, Bensulfuronmethyl, Ethoxysulfuron + Anilofos, Butachlor, and Propanil, on weed density, yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Hashemi) an experiment based on a randomized complete block design with eight treatments and three replications was conducted at the Research Farm of Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan in 2014. The results showed that plant height, seed yield, dry matter yield, harvest index, number of tillers and number fertile florets per panicle were affected by these treatments. Tandem use of Thiobencarb (9 day before sowing), Bensulfuronmethyl (9 day after sowing) and Propanil (30 day after sowing) affected weed dry matter and weed density by 92 and 98 %, respectively. The highest number of fertile floret per panicle (71 pcs) and tillers number per plant (14 pcs) were observed in plots where Thiobencarb, Bensulfuronmethyl and Propanil were used consecutively. In this treatment, seed yield and biological yield increased by 72 and 73 percent respectively as compared with that of control. Application of Pretilachlor caused phytotoxicity, where by reduced plant height and seed yield. The highest grain yield of rice (3092 kg.ha-1) was produced by consecutive use of Thiobencarb, Bensulfuronmethyl and Propanil. This treatment was more effective in reducing density of weeds and their dry matters than of two times hand weeding. The use of Thiobencarb followed by Bensulfuronmethyl and Propanil was the most effective treatment in this expriement.
Akbar, N., K. Jabran, and M.A. Ali. 2011. Weed management improves yield and quality of direct seeded rice. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 5(6): 688.
Ala, A., M. Aghaalikhani, B. Amiri Larijani, and S. Sofizadeh. 2014. Comparison of direct seeding and transplanting rice cultivation systems in Mazandaran province: competition weeds, yield and yield components. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 12(3): 463-475. (In Persian).
Asghari, J. 2002. The critical period of weed control in two (improved and local) cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) In drought stress condition. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science. 33(4): 637-649. (In Persian).
Asghari. J., A. Vahedi, and H.R. Khoshghol. 2011. Critical period of weed control in sunflower (Helianthus annus, L.) in west of Guilan province. Journal of Plant Protection. 25 (2): 126-116. (In Persian).
Barroso, J., D.C. Ruiz, L. Escribano, and C. Fernandez-Quintanilla. 2009. Comparison of three chemical control strategies for Avena sterlis ssp. ludoviciana. Crop Protection. 28: 393-400.
Chauhan, B.S. 2013. Shade reduces growth and seed production of Echinochloa colona, Echinochloa crus- galli, and Echinochloa glabrescens. Crop Protection. 43: 241-245.
Dastan, S., M. R. Malek, H. R. Mobasser and B. Delkhosh. 2011. Study the effect of weeds control and row spacing on weeds traits and agronomical characteristics in rice Tarom Mahalli cultivar. Crop Physiology. 3 (11): 3-20. (In Persian).
Farooq, M., K.H.M. Siddique, H. Rehman, T. Aziz, D.J. Lee, and A. Wahid. 2011. Rice direct seeding: Experiences, challenges and opportunities. Soil and Tillage Research. 111(2): 87-98.
IRRI. 2015. International Rice Research Institute (sited in: http://irri.org/, 16/6/2015.
Ivani, A., M. Safari, and A. Hedayatipour. 2014. Comparison of rice direct seeding methods (mechanical and manual) with transplanting method. Journal of Agricultural Machinery. 4(1): 108-115. (In Persian).Khaliq, A., A. Matloob, N. Ahmad, F. Rasul, and I.U. Awan 2012. Post emergence chemical weed control in direct seeded fine rice. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 22(4): 1101-1106.
Kumar, V., and J.K. Ladha. 2011. Direct seeding of rice: recent developments and future needs. Advances in Agronomy. 111: 297–413.
Kumar, S.N., U.P. Singh, J.M. Sutaliya, C.M. Parihar, and S.L. Jat. 2012. Performance of direct seeded rice under different integrated weed management and crop establishment practices in indo-gangetic plains of India. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 57(4): 1-2.
Lesnik, M. 2003. The impact of maize stands density on herbicide efficiency. Plant, Soil and Environment. 49: 29-35.
Ma, J. 2002. Differential sensitivity to 30 herbicides among populations of two green algae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 68(2): 275-281.
Mahadi, M.A., S.A. Dadari, M. Mahmud, and B.A. Babaji. 2006. Effect of pre-emergence herbicides on yield and yield components of rice. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment. 4(2): 164-167.
Mahzari, S. 2011. Study of management weeds beneficial usage geminate herbicide and cono-weeder in rice (Oryza sativa L.). M.Sc. Dissertation. Islamic Azad University, Takestan Branch. (In Persian).
Mann, R.A., S. Ahmad, G. Hassan, and M.S. Baloch 2007. Weed management in direct seeded rice crop. Pakistan Journal Weed Science Reseaech. 13(3-4): 219-226.
Mohadesi, A., M. Mohammadian, M. Mohammad Salehi, A. Abasian, and S. Bakhshipor. 2010. Study o effect of plowing and phosphate fertilizer on weed population and rice agronomic traits. The Proceeding of 3rd Iranian Weed Science Congress. 2: 50-54. (In Persian).
Mosavi, H., A.A. Gilani, M.R. Moradi, A. Moshtali, and M.S. Mosavi. 2010. Effects of orderam herbicide and seed density on yield and yield components of rice in competition with barnyagrass in Ahvaz. The Proceedings of 3rd Iranian Weed Science Congress. 2: 571-573. (In Persian).
Nasiri, S., J. Asghari, H. Samizadeh, P. Moradi, and F. Shirzad. 2014. Evaluation of oxadiargyl and thiobencarb herbicides efficacy on rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield and yield components. Cereal Research. 3(4): 307-319.
Pacanoski, Z., and G. Glatkova. 2009. The use of herbicides for weed control in direct wet-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) in rice production regions in the Republic of Macedonia. Plant Protect Science. 45(3): 113-118.
Pal, S., H. Banerjee, and N.N. Mandal. 2009. Efficacy of low dose of herbicides against weeds in transplanted Kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Plant Protection Sciences. 1(1): 31-33.
Rao, A.N., D.E. Johnson, B. Sivaprasad, J.K. Ladha, and A.M. Mortimer. 2007. ٌWeed mamnagment in direct seeded rice. Advances in Agronomy. 93: 153-255.
SAS Institute. 1985. SAS user's guide: statistics (Vol. 2). Sas Institute.
Singh, S., L. Bhushan, J.K. Ladha, R.K. Gupta, A.N. Rao, and B. Sivaprasad. 2006. Weed management in dry-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated in the furrow-irrigated raised-bed planting system. Crop Protection. 25(5): 487-495.