بررسی ویژگی های اکوفیزیولوژیکی گندم متاثر از تراکم و کاربرد علف کش ها

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

2 دکتری زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

3 بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران

4 عضو هیات علمی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، لرستان، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تراکم­ های مختلف گیاهی و استفاده از علف­ کش بر عملکرد دانه، تراکم علف هرز و میزان کلروفیل برگ گندم آزمایشی مزرعه­ ای در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی سرابله ایلام به صورت اسپلیت پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک­ های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 94-1393 اجرا گردید. عوامل مورد مطالعه شامل تراکم ­های بوته (200، 250 و 300 کیلوگرم بذر در هکتار) به ­عنوان عامل اصلی و استفاده از علف­ کش (تیمارهای کاربرد توفوردی، گرانستار و شوالیه و شاهد بدون علف­ کش) به­ عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تراکم ­های مختلف گیاهی اثر معنی­ داری بر صفات اندازه­ گیری شده داشتند. با افزایش تراکم بوته از تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن هزار دانه، شاخص برداشت، محتوای آب نسبی، میزان کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، تراکم علف هرز و وزن خشک علف­ هرز کاسته شد، اما تعداد سنبله در متر مربع و  درصد خوابیدگی افزایش یافت. استفاده از علف­ کش موجب افزایش تعداد سنبله در واحد سطح، تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن هزار دانه، شاخص برداشت، محتوای آب نسبی، میزان کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b و کاهش تراکم و وزن خشک علف هرز گردید. برهمکنش تراکم گیاهی و علف­ کش بر عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک معنی دار بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (5500 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تراکم 250 کیلوگرم بذر در هکتار و مصرف علف­ کش گرانستار و کمترین عملکرد دانه (2400 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تراکم 200 کیلوگرم بذر در هکتار و تیمار شاهد به­ دست آمد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تراکم گیاهی 250 کیلوگرم بذر در هکتار و استفاده از علف­ کش گرانستار می­ تواند تاثیر معنی­ داری بر روی رشد گندم داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ecophysiologic Indices of Wheat as Influenced by Plant Density and Application of Herbicide

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsanollah Zeidali 1
  • Rahim Naseri 2
  • Amir Mirzaei 3
  • Ali Asghar Chit Band 4
1 Faculty member, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
2 Ph.D. in Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
3 Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ilam, Iran
4 Faculty member, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effects of application of herbicides and different plant densities on seed yield, weed density and chlorophyll content in wheat (cv. Bahar), a split plot experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications was conducted at the Agricultural Research Staion of Sarableh, Ilam, in 2014-2015 cropping season. Plant densities in (200, 250 and 300 kg of seed/ha) were considered as main factor and application of herbicides (2, 4-D, Granstar, Shovalyeh, and control, without herbicide application) as sub factor. Results indicated that plant densities affected traits under study significantly. As a result number of seed per spike, 1000-seed weight, relative water content, chlorophyll a and b contents decreased, while weed density and weed dry weight number of spike per m2 and percent lodging increased by increasing plant density. Application of herbicide increased number of spike per m2, number of seed per spike, 1000 seed weight, harvest index, relative water content, chlorophyll a and b contents, while it decreased weed dry weight and its density. Interaction effect of plant density and application of herbicide were significant on seed yield and biological yield. The highest seed yield (5500 kg.ha-1) was produced by using 250 kg seed/ha and application of Granstar herbicide and the lowest (2400 kg.ha-1) from 200 kg seed/ha and without application of herbicide. Thus, using 250 kg seed/ha and Granstar herbicide would increase wheat seed yield in this region as compared with the other treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain yield
  • Leaf chlorophyll
  • Weed density
  • Wheat
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