عنوان مقاله [English]
Brago is an important medicinal plant. This study, thus, was conducted with different levels of nano particles of titanium (0.01, 0.03 and 0.05%) and elemental titanium on its different growth stages (4-5 leaf, flowering and after flowering) with four replications in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design at the Agricultural Field of Rement Village of Babol, Mazandaran, Iran, in 2012. Results showed that there were a significant differences between treatments of titanium, time of treatments and between their interactions. Among the traits under study, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, stem fresh weigh at 1% and plant hight, stem dry weight, total plant fresh weight and total plant dry weight at %5 levels of probabilities showed significant differences for their interaction between different treatments of titanium and different stage of development. The highest plant height, leaf dry weight and plant fresh weight and plant dry weight were produced when nano particles of titanium applied after flowering stage. Where as, the highest fresh leaf, fresh stem weight and total plant fresh weights were obtained when plants treated with titanium at flowering stage. On the other hand, dry weight of flowering branches showed significant negative correlation with GPX antioxidant enzyme. The lowest GPX antioxidant enzyme was produced when nano particles of titanium were applied after flowering stage at 0.01% probability level. As a whole, the results of this experiment suggest that there are significant differences among titanium treatments when they are applied at different growth stages of this plant. This study also showed that application of nano particles of titanium after flowering of this plant increased its flowering branches.
Agrawal, S., R.K. Sairam, G.C. Srivasta, A. Tyagi, and R.C. Meena. 2005. Role of ABA, salicylic acid, calcium and hydrogen peroxide on antioxidant enzymes induction in wheat seedling. Plant Science. 169: 559-570.
Akbarinia, A., A. Ghalavand, A. Sharifi Ashorabadi, and S. Banj Shfieei, 2003. Effect of different nutrition systems on soil propertis, elemental uptake and seed yield of Ajowan (Carum Cupticum). Pajouhesh and Sazandegi. 62: 11-29. (In Persian).
Allen, R.D. 1995. Dissection of oxidative stress tolerance using transgenic plants. Plant Physiology. 57: 1049-1054.
Astaraei, A. 2006. Effect of municipal solid waste compost and vermicompost on yield and yield components of Plantago Ovata. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatoc Plants. 3: 180-187. (In Persian).
Bayer, W.J., and I. Imlay Fridovich. 1991. Superoxide dismutase. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology. 40: 221-253.
Beaubaire, N.A., and J.E. Simon. 1987. Production potential of borage (Borago officinalis). Acta Horticulturae. 208: 101-108.
Blokhina, O., E. Virolainen, and K.V. Fagerstedt. 2003. Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: A review. Annals of Botany. 91: 179-194.
Bolwer, C. 1992. Super oxide dismutases andstress tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 43: 83-116.
Bradford, M.M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for quantification of microgram quantities of protein of utilizing the principle dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry. 72:680-685.
Carvajal, M., and C.F. Alcaraz. 1998. Why is titanium a beneficial element for plants? Journal of Plant Nutrition. 21: 655–664.
Chao, S.H.L., and H.S. Choi. 2005. Method for Providing Enhanced Photosynthesis. Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Jeonju, South Korea, 10 pp.
Daood, H.G., P. Biacs, M. Feher, F. Hajdu, and I. Pais. 1988. Effect of titanium on the activity of lipoxygenase. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 11: 505-516.
Dawon, D. 1996. Encyclopedia of herbs and their uses. Dorling Kindersly. 249-250.
Farhody, R. 2011. Assessments of salinity stress on grow antioxidant enzymes and Malondialdehyde content in canola leafs. Iranian JournalofField Crops Research. 9(1): 123-130. (In Persian).
Gao, F., F. Hong, C. Liu, L. Zheng, M. Su, X. Wu, F. Yang, C. Wu, and P. Yang. 2008. Mechanism of nano-anatase TiO2 on promoting photosynthetic carbon reaction of Spinach. Biological Trace Element Research. 111: 239-253.
Habibi, D., M. Mashdi Akbar Boojar, A. Mahmoudi, M.R. Ardakani, and D. Taleghani. 2004. Antioxidative enzyme in sunflower subjected to drought stress. 4th International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 26 September- 1 Octobr. 1-4 pp.
Haghighi, M., and B. Daneshmand. 2013. Comparing the effects of titanium and nano-titanium on growth and photosynthetic changes of tomato in hydroponic culture. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture. 4(13): 73-79. (In Persian).
Hecl, J., and A. Sustrikova. 2006. Determination of heavy metals in chamomile flower drug-an assurance of quality control. Program and Abstract book of the 1st International Symposium on Chamomile Research, Development and Production. 69 pp.
Jaberzadeh, A., P. Moaveni, H.R. Tohidi Moghadam, and O. Moradi. 2010. Assessment of particular of nano titanium in wheat agricultural characterization on the drought steers. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 2: 295-301. (In Persian).
Martínez-Sánchez, F., M. Nunez, A. Amoros, J.L. Gimenez, and C.F. Alcaraz. 1993. Effect of titanium leaf spray treatments on ascorbic acid levels of Capsicum annuum (L.) fruits. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 16(5): 975-981.
Mittler, R. 2002. Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends in Plant Sci. 9: 405-410.
Mohamady, M., D. Habibi, M.R. Ardekani, and A. Asgharzadeh. 2010. Different levels of cadmium and application of biologic fertilizers, humic acid and superabsorbent polymer on SOD activity, MDA and chlorophyll content in annual medic (Medicago scutellata) on the cadmium affected. Journal of Agriculture and Plant Breeding. 6: 65-79. (In Persian).
Mohanty, N. 2003. Photosynthetic characteristics and enzymatic antioxidant capacity of flag leaf and the grain yield in two cultivars of Triticum aestivum (L.) exposed to warmer growth conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology. 160: 71-74.
Naghdibady, H., Z. Zeinali Mobarakeh, H. Omidi, and S.h. Rezazadeh. 2011. Morphological diversity, Boago agricultural and phitochimic affected by chemical and biological fertilization. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 145-156.
Pais, I. 1983. The biological importance of titanium. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 6: 123–131.
Sairam, R.K., K.V. Rao, and G.C. Srivastava. 2002. Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science. 163: 1037-1046.
Sairam, R.K., and G.C. Srivastava. 2002. Changes in antioxidant activity in sub-cellular fractions of tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes in response to long term salt stress. Plant Science. 162: 897-904.
Scandalios, J.G. 1993. Oxygen stress and superoxide dismutase. Plant Physiology. 101: 7-12.
Simon, L., A. Balogh, F. Hajdu, and I. Pais. 1990. Effect of titanium on the carbohydrate content and phospho-fructokinase activity of tomato. In: Pais I. (ed.): New results in the research of hardly known trace elements and their importance in the international geosphere-biosphere program. University of Horticultural Food Science, Budapest: 49-84.
Stewart, R.R.C., and J.D. Bewley. 1980. Lipid peroxidation associated aging of soybean axes. Plant Physiology. 65: 245-248.
Wettasinghe, M., and F. Shahidi. 2005. Fe (III) chelation activity of extract of Borago and evening primrose meals. Food Research International. 35: 65-71.
Yazdani, D., S, Shahnazi, and H. Seifi. 2004. Cultivation of medicinal plants: Applied guide for cultivation of 40 import medicinal plants in Iran. ACECR, Institute of Medicinal Plants. 38-40. (In Persian).
Zargari, A. 1989. Medicinal plants. 4th ed. Tehran University Iran. Volume 3. (In Persian).
Zhang, M., L. Duan, X. Tian, Z. He, J. Li, B. Wang, and Z. Li. 2006. Uniconazole-induced tolerance of soybean to water deficit stress in relation to changes in photosynthesis, hormones and antioxidant system. Journal of Plant Physiology. 164: 709-717.