بررسی اثرات تاریخ کاشت و ارقام برنج بر آناتومی پدانکل و عملکرد دانه در شرایط اقلیمی خوزستان

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بخش اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

2 استاد دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین، اهواز، ایران

3 کارشناس برنج، بخش اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

4 کارشناس ارشد زراعت، باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد دزفول، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، دزفول، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف تعیین اثرات تنش گرما در تاریخ­ های مختلف کاشت بر آناتومی پدانکل ارقام برنج و میزان عملکرد دانه در استان خوزستان طراحی و اجرا گردید. این آزمایش با دو عامل تاریخ کاشت و رقم به صورت کرت‌های یک ­بار خرد شده، در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو سال (1385 و 1386) در مزرعه ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان (شاوور) اجرا شد. سه تاریخ کاشت (2/15، 3/5 و 3/25) در کرت‌های اصلی و 5 رقم برنج شامل ارقام هویزه و حمر (متحمل به گرما) عنبوری قرمز و چمپا (حساس به گرما)، رقم پرمحصول دانیال (نیمه متحمل به گرما) در کرت‌های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج تجزیه مرکب نشان داد که اثر متقابل بین رقم و تاریخ کاشت در صفاتی نظیر سطح کانال هوایی، سطح دستجات آوندی بزرگ، چوب و آبکش معنی ­دار بود. به ­عبارتی، ارقام بسته به شرایط حرارتی واکنش متفاوتی داشتند. کمترین و بیشترین اندازه سطح کانال­ های هوایی را تاریخ‌های کاشت اول و دوم به­ ترتیب با میانگین 15924/37 و 21144/38 میکرومتر مربع، همچنین در ارقام هویزه و چمپا به ­ترتیب با میانگین 15492/23 و 23411/18 میکرومتر مربع دارا بودند. کمترین و بیشترین سطح آوند چوب مربوط به تاریخ­ های کاشت سوم و اول به­ ترتیب با میانگین 741/37 و 898/03 میکرومتر مربع و کمترین و بیشترین سطح دستجات آوندی بزرگ، به­ ترتیب با میانگین 15514/20 و 15983/93 میکرومتر مربع، و آبکش، به­ ترتیب با میانگین 3121/77 و 3437/55 میکرومتر مربع به تاریخ کاشت­ های دوم و سوم اختصاص یافتند. بر این اساس، می ­توان کاهش سطح دستجات آوندی بزرگ و آبکش در دو تاریخ کاشت اول و دوم را نوعی سازوکار برای حفظ آب و فشار آماس سلول­ ها دانست. همچنین، افزایش سطح آوند چوب نیز می­ تواند جهت انتقال بیشتر حجم آب با توجه به نیاز گیاه در شرایط تنش باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Effects of Sowing Dates on the Peduncle Anatomy and Grain Yeild of Rice Cultivars in the Climatic Condition of Khuzestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdolali Gilani 1
  • Seyyed Ataallah Siadat 2
  • Sami Jalali 3
  • Kaveh Limouchi 4
1 Assistant Prof., of Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, Khozestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Prof., University of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Ramin, Ahwaz, Iran
3 M.Sc. of Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, Khozestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of heat stress, due to different planting dates, on the peduncle anatomy of rice cultivars and their grain yields. It was performed in a split-plot experiment using randomized complete blocks design with three replications in 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons at the Shavoor Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Khuzestan. Three planting dates (May 5th. with 20 days intervals), to expose rice cultivars to different tempratures, were assigned to main plots and cultivars (Hoveizeh, Hamar, heat tolerant, Ghermez Anbori, Champa, heat sensitive, and Danial, relatively heat tolerant) to sub-plots. The results of combined analysis showed that the effects of planting date× variety interactions were significant for all of traits, including air channel surface, large vascular bundles surface, xylem and phloem. This indicates that cultivars reacted differently to planting dates. Lowest and highest airchannels surface levels were related to 1st and 2nd planting dates (15492.23 and 21144.38 µm2) and to Hoveizeh and Champa cultivars (15492.23 and 23411.18 µm2) respectively. Lowest and highest xylem surface obtained in 3rd and 1st planting dates (741.37 and 898.03 µm2) respectively. But, lowest and highest level of large vascular bundles were optained in 2nd and 3rd planting dates (15514.20 and 15983.93 µm2)and for phloem (3121.68 and 3437.55 µm2)respectively. Based on these results it can be said that the reduction of large vascular bundles surface and phloem in 1st and 2nd planting date are mechanisms of water conservation and maintaining cell turgor pressure. Increasing xylem vascular bundle surface also, would facilitate availability of water to plant under drought stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultivars
  • heat
  • Peduncle
  • Rice
  • Stress
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