تعیین زمان مناسب نشاکاری برنج (Oryza sativa L) رقم طارم محلی در کشت دوم در مازندران

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه زراعت، واحد آیت الله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آمل، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد آیت الله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آمل، ایران

3 باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد آیت الله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آمل، ایران

چکیده

نشاکاری در زمان مناسب یکی از عوامل اصلی موفقیت در تولید برنج در کشت دوم می­ باشد. به­ منظور تعیین مناسب­ ترین زمان نشاکاری برای کشت دوم برنج رقم طارم محلی در مازندران، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک ­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه کشاورزی واقع در شهرستان آمل در سال زراعی 1393 اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل 24 تاریخ کاشت از 7 تیر تا 14 شهریور به فواصل سه روز بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که بین تاریخ ­های مختلف نشاکاری در تمامی صفات زراعی و عملکرد دانه تفاوت معنی­ داری در سطح احتمال یک درصد وجود داشت. با تأخیر در تاریخ نشا، تعداد دانه پوک در خوشه افزایش و سایر صفات زراعی و عملکرد دانه کاهش یافتند. بیشترین عملکرد دانه با میانگین 3975/2 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تاریخ نشای 10 تیر حاصل شد که می ­تواند ناشی از افزایش اجزای عملکردی نظیر تعداد کل دانه (80/3 عدد)، تعداد دانه پر در خوشه (72 عدد) و تعداد خوشه در بوته (18/3 عدد خوشه) در این تاریخ نشا باشد. کمترین عملکرد دانه نیز با میانگین 38/5 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تاریخ کاشت 14 شهریور به‌دست آمد. نشاکاری زودهنگام سبب کاهش تعداد روز تا مراحل مختلف فنولوژیکی (روز تا پنجه‌دهی، روز تا 50 درصد گلدهی و روز تا رسیدگی) گردید. در عین حال، تأخیر در نشاکاری سبب افزایش تعداد روز تا وقوع مراحل نموی و کاهش عملکرد دانه نیز گردید. تاریخ‌های نشاکاری 7 تا 19 تیر به علت وجود درجه حرارت و تشعشعات مناسب و همچنین عدم وقوع بارندگی شدید، سبب افزایش عملکرد دانه برنج شد. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق، به نظر می­ رسد دوره زمانی 7 تا 19 تیر، مناسب­ ترین زمان نشاکاری برای کشت دوم برنج رقم طارم محلی در شرایط آب و هوایی آمل باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Optimum Transplanting Date for Double Cropping of Rice (Oryza sativa L. CV. Tarom Mahalli) in Mazandaran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Esmaeilzadeh 1
  • Yousef Niknejad 2
  • Hormoz Fallah Amoli 2
  • norollah kheyri 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate, Department of Agronomy, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Agronomy, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran
3 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran
چکیده [English]

Timely transplanting is one of the major objectives of success in double cropping of rice. To determine the best transplanting dates for double cropping of Tarom mahalli in Mazandaran, a field experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicaties in Amol in 2014. Treatments were: 24 transplanting dates beginning from June 28 to September 5 with intervals of three days. The results of analysis of variance indicated that there were significant differences among different transplanting dates for all agronomic traits and grain yield at 1% probability levels. Delaying transplanting increased unfilled grain number per panicle and decreased other agronomic traits including seed yield. The highest grain yield (with an average of 3975.2 kg.ha-1) was obtained at 1st of July transplanting date. This was due to the increase in the number of seeds (80.3), number of filled seed per panicle (72) and panicle number per plant (18.3). The lowest grain yield (with an average of 38.5 kg.ha-1) was obtained at the 5th of September transplanting. Early transplanting decreased days to different phonological stages (days to tillering, 50% flowering and maturity). Delay in transplanting, however, reduced daily temperature, increased number of days to the developmental stages and thus decreased seed yield. Early July transplanting due to suitable temperatures and radiation for flowering and lack of heavy rainfall increased seed yield of rice. It could be concluded that transplanting from the 28th of June to the 10th of July can be considered as the optimum transplanting date for double cropping of rice (var. Tarom mahalli) at Amol climatic conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Double cropping
  • Grain yield
  • Mazandaran
  • Rice
  • Tarom mahalli
  • Transplanting date
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