ارتباط فنولوژی و صفات فیزیولوژیک با عملکرد دانه کلزا در خراسان شمالی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دوره دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبد کاووس، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبد کاووس، ایران

3 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، اعضای هیأت علمی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه گنبد کاووس

4 استادیارگروه زراعت، مجتمع آموزش عالی شیروان، شیروان، ایران

چکیده

مهم­ ترین صفات فنولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک مؤثر بر افزایش عملکرد کلزا با اجرای آزمایشی در سال 1394-1393 در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار روی 20 رقم کلزا در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مجتمع آموزش عالی شیروان واقع در خراسان شمالی تعیین شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که بین ارقام برای کلیه صفات از لحاظ آماری تفاوت معنی‌دار وجود داشت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه با 513/56 گرم در متر مربع به رقم هیبرید تراویتا تعلق داشت که با ارقام کودیاک، L72، SW102 و بیلبائو تفاوت معنی‌دار نداشت. کمترین عملکرد به رقم شیرالی با 344/41 گرم در متر مربع به دست آمد که با ارقام زرفام و ساری‌گل نیز تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت. بین عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک، تعداد خورجین در بوته، تعداد دانه در خورجین، وزن دانه، شاخص برداشت، تعداد روزهای تا ساقه‌دهی، تا شروع گل‌دهی، تا پایان گل‌دهی، تا شروع تشکیل غلاف، تا پایان تشکیل غلاف و تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک، همچنین شروع پر شدن دانه، سرعت پر شدن دانه و ارتفاع بوته همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌دار و بین عملکرد و دوره پر شدن دانه، تعداد روزهای تا سبز شدن و تا مرحله رزت همبستگی منفی و معنی­ دار وجود داشت. بر اساس رگرسیون گام به گام، عملکرد دانه به‌عنوان متغیر وابسته و بقیه صفات به‌عنوان متغیرهای مستقل وارد مدل گردیدند. اثرات مستقیم و مثبت شاخص برداشت و عملکرد بیولوژیک و همچنین اثر غیر مستقیم مثبت عملکرد بیولوژیک روی تعداد خورجین در بوته، و اثر غیر مستقیم مثبت تعداد خورجین در بوته روی شاخص برداشت نشان داد که این صفات از اجزای قابل اعتماد برای انتخاب ژنوتیپ‌های با عملکرد بالا به شمار می­ روند. نتایج تجزیه ضرایب مسیر برای وزن و تعداد دانه در واحد سطح نشان داد که وزن و تعداد دانه اجزای مهمی در تعیین عملکرد دانه هستند که البته تأثیر تعداد دانه در واحد سطح بزرگ‌تر است. سرعت پر شدن دانه در تعیین وزن دانه از دوام پر شدن دانه مؤثرتر بود. تجزیه رگرسیون نیز نشان داد که به‌ازای یک درجه سلسیوس افزایش دما در دوره پر شدن دانه، طول این دوره 1/54 روز کاهش و سرعت پر شدن دانه به میزان 0/007 میلی‌گرم بر دانه در روز افزایش پیدا می‌کند. به ازای افزایش هر روز دوام پر شدن دانه، سرعت پر شدن دانه به‌میزان 0/004 میلی‌گرم بر دانه در روز کاهش یافت. به‌طورکلی از نظر سرعت و دوام پر شدن دانه بین 20 رقم کلزای مورد مطالعه، تنوع ژنتیکی وجود داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationships of Phenology and Physiological Traits with the Yield of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) in Northern Khorasan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Frooghi 1
  • Abbas Biyabani 2
  • Ali Rahemi Karizaki 3
  • Gorbanali Rassam 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Crop Physiology, Plant Production Department, Gonbad University, Gonbad Cavous, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Agriculture, Gonbad University, Gonbad Cavous, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Dept. plant production, Gonbad Kavoos University, Iran
4 Assistant Prof., Department of Plant production, Higher Education complex of Shirvan, Shivan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate relationships among physiological traits of 20 rapeseed cultivars, an experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Agricultural Faculty of Shirvan in Northern Khorasan in Iran, in 2014-2015. The experiment used was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Results showed that there were significant differences among cultivars for seed and biological yield, the number of pod/plant and seed/pod, 1000 seed weight, harvest index, days to germination, seedling, rosette, shooting, flowering time, end of flowering, pod formation time, end of pod formation, seed filling time and physiological maturity among the traits of rapeseed under study. The highest yield belonged to Traviata (513.56 g/m2) but did not have significant difference with Kodiak, Bilbao, L72 and SW102. The lowest yield belonged to Shirali cultivar (344.41 g.m-2) but it also did not have significant difference with Zarfam and Sarigol cultivars. Positive and significant correlation was observed for seed and biological yields, number of pods/plant and seeds/pod, seed weight, harvest index, the number of days to flowering, flowering end, beginning pod formation, ending pod formation, beginning seed filling, plant height and seed filling rate, but correlations were negative between seed yield and seed filling period and day to emergence and rosette. According to stepwise regression, seed yield was considered as dependent variable and other traits as independent ones. Positive direct effects of harvest index and biological yield and also positive indirect effect of biological yield on number of pod/plant and positive indirect effect number of pod/plant on harvest index were the traits that can be used for selection of high yielding genotypes. Path analysis revealed that traits like seed weight and seed number per unit, seed number and seed weight are its determiners of seed yield. The results also showed that seed filling rate is more effect than seed filling period in determination of seed weight. Regression analysis also showed that by increasing temperature, seed filling period was decreased by 1.54 days and seed filling rate increased 0.004 mg/grain.day-1 centigrad-1. Based on these results it could be concluded that genotypes varied significantly for the rate and duration of seed filling. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Correlation
  • Path analysis
  • Seed filling rate
  • stepwise regression
  • yield
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