ارزیابی صفات کیفی علوفه ارقام ذرت (Zea mays L) در واکنش به تراکم کاشت

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علمی کشاورزی دانشگاه پیام نور

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

چکیده

ذرت نقش مهمی در تغذیه دام­ ها دارد. به همین دلیل، تلاش برای افزایش کیفیت علوفه آن از طریق مدیریت­ های زراعی اهمیت بالایی دارد. به­ منظور بررسی کیفیت علوفه ارقام ذرت در واکنش به تراکم کاشت، آزمایشی به­ صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه بلوک­ های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل تراکم بوته در سه سطح، 93، 105 و 119 هزار بوته در هکتار و فاکتور دوم شامل ارقام ذرت در پنج سطح، زوالا، سیمون، NS، 540 و 370 بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تولید ماده خشک تحت تأثیر اثر متقابل تراکم و رقم قرار گرفت. به­ طوری­ که، رقم 540 در تراکم 119 هزار بوته در هکتار بیش­ترین مقدار علوفه (980 گرم بر متر مربع) و رقم NS در تراکم 93 هزار بوته کمترین مقدار آن را (933 گرم بر متر مربع) تولید کردند. به نظر  می­رسد که هر چه تراکم کاشت بیشتر باشد، میزان دیواره سلولی فاقد همی­ سلولز نیز بالاتر رفته و کیفیت علوفه افزایش می­ یابد. از نظر شاخص دیواره سلولی فاقد همی­ سلولز، رقم زولا با داشتن 638 گرم بر کیلوگرم، کم­ترین کیفیت را داشت، در حالی که سایر ارقام از این نظر در یک گروه آماری قرار گرفتند. میزان فسفر علوفه در تراکم 93 هزار بوته در هکتار بیش­ترین مقدار را داشت ولی مقدار کلسیم تحت تأثیر تراکم کاشت قرار نگرفت. در تراکم ­های کمتر، از نظر پروتئین خام، علوفه ­ای با کیفیتی بالاتر تولید شد. رقم 540 بیش­ترین عملکرد پروتئین خام (کیلوگرم در هکتار) را داشت که نشان از برتری این رقم نسبت به سایر ارقام مورد بررسی دارد و در نتیجه، برای تولید علـوفه با کیفیت بالاتر و ماده خشک بیشتر در منطقه (و سایر مناطق با شرایط اقلیمی مشابه) قابل توصیه می­ باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Quality Traits of Forage Maize Cultivars as Affected by Different Plant Densities

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamdollah Eskandari 1
  • Abdollah Javanmard 2
  • Fariborz Shekari 2
1 Associate Prof., Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
چکیده [English]

Maize has an important role in livestock nutrition. Thus, improving its forage quality through agronomical managements seems to be of high importance. To evaluate quality traits of forage maize cultivars in response to plant densities, a factorial experiment based on RCBD with three replications was carried out at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh during 2013-2014 growing season. The first factor was plant density with three levels (93000, 105000 and 119000 plant.ha-1) and the second factor was maize cultivars with five levels (Zola, Simon, NS, 540 and 370). Results of the experiment indicated that dry matter production was affected by the interaction of plant density and cultivar, where cultivar 540 produced the highest dry forage (980 g.m-2) by density of 119000 plant.h-1 and cultivar NS the lowest (933 g.m-2) dry forage by density of 93000 plant.m-2. However, all cultivars under study produced higher dry matter under higher plant densities. It was also observed that Zola cultivar, with 638 g.kg-1 of hemicellulose, had the lowest forage quality. Other cultivars were in the same statistical group. Phosphorous content of forage was in its highest value in 93000 plant density, while calcium content was not affected by plant density. Lower plant densities resulted in higher crude protein content. Cultivar no. 540 produced the highest crude protein yield (kg.ha-1) suggesting its superiority to the other cultivar. This cultivar can be recommended for growing in this region and other regions with same climatic conditions for producing high quality and quantity of maize forage production.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cell wall
  • crude protein
  • dry matter
  • Hemicellulose
  • Plant density

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