سودمندی کشت مخلوط کنجد-لوبیا چشم بلبلی در تیمارهای مختلف کودی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

4 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

به­ منظور بررسی تأثیر مدیریت سیستم‌های مختلف مصرف کود و نقش نسبت­ های متفاوت کشت مخلوط کنجد و لوبیا چشم بلبلی در حاصل­ خیزی خاک، آزمایشی به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سال 1393 در استان فارس، شهرستان فسا اجرا گردید. فاکتور اصلی شامل مصرف کودهای شیمیایی و آلی: نیتروژن + فسفر (F1)، کود آلی (F2)، کود زیستی (F3)،  شیمیایی 50% + 50% آلی (F4) و 50% شیمیایی + 50% زیستی (F5)، و فاکتور فرعی شامل نسبت­ های کاشت گیاهان: کشت خالص کنجد (M1)، کشت خالص لوبیا چشم بلبلی (M2)، کشت مخلوط 50:50 (M3)، کشت مخلوط 25:75 کنجد-لوبیا چشم بلبلی (M4) و کشت مخلوط 75:25 کنجد-لوبیا چشم بلبلی (M5)، بودند. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد کنجد و لوبیا چشم بلبلی به طور معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر مصرف کود و نسبت‌های کاشت قرار گرفتند. بیشترین عملکرد کنجد (1292/60 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و لوبیا چشم بلبلی (3772/40 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در شرایط تک‌کشتی به دست آمد و در بین تیمارهای کودی بیشترین عملکرد کنجد (950/49 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و لوبیا چشم بلبلی (2582/50 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به­ ترتیب متعلق به اعمال تیمار کود آلی (F2) و کود زیستی (F3) بودند. علی­ رغم این نتایج، نسبت‌های کاشت نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار نسبت برابری زمین (LER) متعلق به سیستم کودی F4 با میانگین 1/24 و نسبت کاشت 50:50 (M3) با میانگین 1/03 بودند. بنابراین، با توجه به این نتایج، به نظر می‌رسد که نسبت کاشت M3 و مصرف 50% کود شیمیایی + 50% کود آلی (F4)، می‌تواند مصرف کمتر کودهای شیمیایی و سودمندی کشت مخلوط این دو گیاه را به همراه داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Advantage of Sesame and Cowpea Intercrops in Different Fertilizer Application Systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jasem Aminifar 1
  • Mahmood Ramroudi 2
  • Mohammad Galavi 3
  • Gholamreza Mohsenabadi 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Associate Prof., Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
3 Prof., Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
4 Assistant Prof., Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effects of different fertilizer applications and sesame/cowpea intercropping systems on soil fertility, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted in Fasa, Fars province, during 2014. The main plots were five fertilizer levels consisted of: using chemical fertilizers nitrogen+phosphorous (F1), organic fertilizers (F2), biofertilizers (F3), 50% chemical fertilizer + 50% organic fertilizer (F4) and 50% chemical fertilizer + 50% biofertilizer (F5), and sub plots consisted of: sole cropping of sesame (M1), sole cropping of cowpea (M2), 50:50 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M3), 75:25 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M4) and 25:75 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M5). The results showed that soil fertility and cropping systems affected the yield and yield components of sesame and cowpea significantly. The highest yield of sesame (1292.6 kg.ha-1), and cowpea (3772.4 kg.ha-1) were obtained from their sole croppings. Among the applications of fertilizer, the highest yield of sesame (950.49 kg.ha-1) and cowpea (2582.50 kg.ha-1) belonged to bioorganic and biofertilizer treatments, respectively. In spite of these results, the highest land equivalent ratio (LER) belonged to F4 (1.24) and M3 (1.03) treatments. In general, according to the results, it seems that 50:50 sesame-cowpea intercropping (M3) and application of 30 kg.ha-1 N + 50 kg.ha-1 P + 150 kg.ha-1 bio-organic fertilizer (F4), may reduce application of chemical fertilizers and be beneficial to sesame-cowpea intercropping system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cowpea
  • Intercropping usefulness
  • Sesame
  • Soil fertility
  • yield

Abdzad Gohari, A., A. Amiri, M. Porhelme Gohari, and Z. Babaei Bazkiaei. 2010. Effect of nitrogen and potassium on yield and traits of cowpea in rainfed conditions. Journal of Research in Crop Science. 3(10): 73-84. (In Persian).
Adeoye, P.A., S.E. Adebayo, and J.J. Musa. 2011. Growth and yield response of cowpea to poultry and cattle manure as amendments on sandy loam soil plot. Agricultural Journal. 6(5): 218-221.
Ahmad, M., Z.A. Zahir, H.N. Asghar, and M. Arshad. 2012. The combined application of rhizobial strains and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improves growth and productivity of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Annals of Microbiology. 62: 1321-1330.
Aminifar, J., Gh. Mohsenabadi, M.H. Bigluei, and H. Samizadeh. 2013. Effect of deficit irrigation on yield, yield components and water productivity of soybean T.215 cultivar. Journal of Water and Irrigation Engineering. 3(11): 24-34. (In Persian).
Antolín, M.C., I. Muro, and M. Sánchez-Díaz. 2010. Application of sewage sludge improves growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant activities of nodulated alfalfa plants under drought conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 68: 75–82.
Bhatti, I.H., R. Ahmad, A. Jabbar, M.S. Nazir, and T. Mahmood. 2006. Competitive behavior of component crops in different sesame – legume intercropping systems. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 2: 165-167.
Bigonah, R., P. Rezvani Moghadam, and M. Jahan. 2014. Effect of intercropping on biological yield, nitrogen percentage and morphological charactristics of Coriandrum sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 12(3): 369-377. (In Persian).
Efthimiadou, A., D. Bilalis, A. Karkannis, B. Froud-Williams, and I. Eleftherochorinos. 2009. Effects of cultural system (organic and conventional) on growth, photosynthesis and yield components of sweetcorn (Zea mays L.) under semi-arid environment. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 37: 104–111.
Ghalavand, A., A. Hamidi, M.J. Malakooti, A. Asgharzadeh, and R. Chogan. 2006. Biofertilizer applications. 9th Agronomy and Plant Breeding Congress, University of Tehran (College of Aboriahan), 28th-30th August, Tehran, Iran, pp 200-225.
Ghalavand, A., Kh. Mohammadi, M. Aghaalikhani, and Y. Sohrabi. 2009. Effect of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on yield and quality of pea. Journal of Soil and Water Science. 19(2): 213-234. (In Persian).
Ghosh, P.K., K.K. Ajay, M.C. Bandyopadhyay, K.G. Manna, A.K. Mandal, and K.M. Hati. 2004. Comparative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phospho- compost and fertilizer-NPK on three cropping system in vertisols of semi-arid tropics. II. dry matter yield, nodulation, chlorophyll content and enzyme activity. Bioresource Technology. 95: 85–93.
Ghosh, P.K., M.C. Manna, K.K. Bandyopadhyay, A.K. Ajay, R.H. Tripathi, K.M. Wanjari, A.K. Hati, C.L. Misra, and A. Acharya Subba Rao. 2006. Interspecific interaction and nutrient use in soybean/sorghum intercropping system. Agronomy Journal. 98: 1097–1108.
Jamshidi, Kh., D. Mazaheri, N. Majnoun Hosseini, H. Rahimian, and A. Peyghambari. 2008. Evaluation of yield in intercropping of maize and cowpea. Pajouhsh & Sazandegi. 80: 110 – 118. (In Persian).
Jannoura, R., R.G. Joergensen, and C. Bruns. 2014. Organic fertilizer effects on growth, crop yield, and soil microbial biomass indices in sole and intercropped peas and oats under organic farming conditions. European Journal of Agronomy. 52: 259-270.
Kizilkaya, R. 2008.Yield response and nitrogen concentration of spring wheat inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum strains. Ecological Engineering. 33: 150-156.
Koocheki, A., M. Nassiri Mahalati, Y. Alizadeh, and R. Moradi. 2014. Response-surface analysis for evaluation of competition in different densities of sesame (Sesamum indicum) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) intercropping. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 12(3): 335-342. (In Persian).
Liu, X., S.J. Herbert, J. Jin, Q. Zhang, and G. Wang. 2004. Responses of photosynthetic rates and yield/quality of main crops to irrigation and manure application in the black soil area of Northeast China. Plant and Soil. 261: 55–60.
Mazaheri, D. 1996. Facilitative production in intercropping. 4th Agronomy and Plant Breeding Congress, Industrial University of Isfahan (College of Aboriahan), 26th-29th August, Isfahan, Iran.
Najeeb, U., M.Y. Mirza, G. Jilani, A.K. Mubashir, and W.J. Zhou. 2012. Sesame. In: Gupta S.K. (eds).  Technological Innovations in Major World Oil Crops, Volume 1:Breeding. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.
Nielsen, H.H., P. Ambus, and E.S. Jensen. 2001. Interspecific competition N use and interference with weeds in pea – barley intercropping. Field Crops Research. 70: 101-109.
Okon, Y., and R. Itzigsohn. 1995. The development of Azospirillum as a commercial inoculant for improving crop yields. Biotechnol Advances. 13: 415–424.
Parsa, M., and A. Bagheri. 2008. Pulses. Mashhad Jihad Publications, Iran (In Persian).
Pouramir, F., M. Nassiri Mahallati, A. Koocheki, and R. Ghorbani. 2010a. Evaluation the effect of different planting ratios on yield and yield components of intercropping sesame and chickpea in additive series. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 8(3): 393-402. (In Persian).
Pouramir, F., M. Nassiri Mahallati, A. Koocheki and R. Ghorbani. 2010b. Assessment of sesame and chickpea yield and yield components in the replacement series intercropping. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 8(5): 757-767. (In Persian).
Radwan, S.M., H.F. Hussein, J.L. Rubio, R.P. Morgan, S. Asins, and V. Andreu. 2002. Response of wheat plants to bio and organic fertilization under different weed control treatments. Man and Soil at the Third Millennium Proceedings International Congress of the European Society of Soil Conservation, Valencia, Spain. (1): 1015-1023.
Reyhan, M.K., and F. Amiraslani. 2006. Studying the relationship between vegetation and physico-chemical properties of soil, case study: Tabas region, Iran. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 5: 169-171.
Rudresh, D.L., M.K. Shivaprakash, and R.D. Prasad. 2005. Effect of combined application of rhizobium, phosphate solubilizing bacterium and Trichoderma spp. on growth, nutrient uptake and yield of chickpea (Cicer aritenium L.). Applied Soil Ecology. 28: 139-146.
Selosse, M.A., E. Baudoin, and P. Vandenkoornhyse. 2004. Symbiotic microorganisms, a key for ecological success and protection of plants. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 327: 639 -648.
Sharma, A.K. 2003. Biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture. Agrobios Publication, India.
Singh, B., H.A. Ajeigbe, S.A. Tarawali, S. Fernandez-Rivera, and M. Abubakar. 2003. Improving the production and utilization of cowpea as food and fodder. Field Crops Research. 84: 169–150.
Tarango Rivero, S.H., V.G. Nevarez Moorillon, and E. Orrantia Borund. 2009. Growth, yield, and nutrient status of pecans fertilized with biosolids and inoculated with rizosphere fungi. Bioresource Technology. 100: 1992–1998.
Togay, N., Y. Tgay, K.M. Cimrin, and M. Turan. 2008. Effect of rhizobium inoculation, sulfur and phosphorus applications on yield, yield components and nutrient uptakes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). African Journal Biotechnology. 7: 776-782.
Tsubo, M., S. Walker, and E. Mukhala. 2001. Comparison of radiation use efficiency of mono-inter –cropping systems with different row orientations. Field Crops Research. 71: 17-29.
Valverde, A., A. Burgos, T. Fiscella, R. Rivas, E. Velázquez, C. Rodríguez-Barrueco, E. Cervantes, M. Chamber, and J.M. Igual. 2006. Differential effects of coinoculations with Pseudomonas jessenii PS06 (a phosphate-solubilizing bacterium) and Mesorhizobium ciceri C-2/2 strains on the growth and seed yield of chickpea under greenhouse and field conditions. Plant and Soil. 287: 43-50.
Willey R.W. 1979. Intercropping its importance and research needs. I. Competition and yield advantages. Field Crops Abstract. 32: 1–10.

Zargari, K. 1993. The effects of irradiation on morphological, physiological and cytological traits of mung bean. M.Sc. Dissertation. Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj, Iran. (In Persian).