تأثیر کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر کارآیی نیتروژن و فسفر در خرفه ‏‏(‏Portulaca oleracea L.‎‏)‏

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران‎.‎

2 کارشناسی ارشد آگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

تأثیر عناصر غذایی نیتروژن و فسفر از منابع آلی و شیمیایی بر تغییرات غلظت، جذب و کارآیی آنها در گیاه خرفه طی آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهرکرد در سال 1393 بررسی گردید. تیمارهای مختلف کودی شامل 13 تن در هکتار کود مرغی (T1)، 4/14 تن در هکتار کود مرغی (T2)، 39 تن در هکتار کود گاوی (T3)، 8/16 تن در هکتار کود گاوی+ 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره (T4)، چهار سطح کود شیمیایی معادل تیمارهای آلی، 260 + 86 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‎ترتیب اوره و سوپرفسفات تریپل (T5)، 287 +100 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‎ترتیب اوره و سوپرفسفات تریپل (T6)، 260 + 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‎ترتیب اوره و سوپرفسفات تریپل (T7)، 260 +100 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‎ترتیب اوره و سوپرفسفات تریپل (T8) و شاهد (بدون مصرف کود) (T0) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که ماده خشک گیاه خرفه در تیمار  T2(۸۳۴۵ کیلوگرم بر هکتار) نسبت به سایر تیمارهای کودی به‎طور معنی‎داری افزایش یافت (۰۵/۰P<). کارآیی زراعی نیتروژن تیمار  T5و کارآیی زراعی فسفر تیمار T2 افزایش معنی‎داری در مقایسه با دیگر تیمارهای کودی نشان دادند (۰۵/۰P<)، کارآیی بازیافت نیتروژن تیمارهای  T5و T7 اختلاف معنی‎داری با هم نداشتند. ولی کارآیی بازیافت فسفر  T2با میانگین ۶/52 درصد تفاوت معنی‎داری با دیگر تیمارهای کودی نشان داد. کارآیی فیزیولوژیکی نیتروژن تیمار T2 (۰۲/35 کیلوگرم بر کیلوگرم) با تیمار  T8(6/31 کیلوگرم بر کیلوگرم)، و کارآیی فیزیولوژیکی فسفر تیمارهای  T1و T5 اختلاف معنی‎داری با هم نداشتند. به‎طورکلی، برتری کارآیی فیزیولوژیک نیتروژن و همین‎طور کارآیی زراعی، بازیافت و فیزیولوژیک فسفر در کود مرغی بیان‎گر نقش اکولوژیکی کاربرد کودهای آلی در تولید گیاه خرفه است که علاوه بر حفظ محیط زیست باعث جلوگیری از هدر روی منابع و تجمع فسفر در خاک‌های زراعی می‏شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Nitrogen and ‎Phosphorus Efficiency in Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) ‎

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyfollah Fallah Fallah 1
  • Behjat Omrani Omrani 2
1 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
2 M.Sc. Agroecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.‎
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients from organic and chemical fertilizers sources, on their efficiency in purslane, a field experiment based on complete randomized block design was conducted at the Research Farm of Shahrekord University in 2014. Treatments were 13 t.ha-1 broiler litter (T1), 14.4 t.ha-1 broiler litter (T2), 39 t.ha-1 cattle manure (T3), 16.8 t.ha-1 cattle manure + 150 kg.ha-1 urea (T4), four chemical fertilizer levels equivalent to organic manure treatments, 260+86 kg.ha-1 urea +triple super phosphate, respectively (T5), 287+100 kg.ha-1 urea + triple super phosphate, respectively (T6), 260+200 kg.ha-1 urea + triple super phosphate, respectively (T7), 260+100 kg.ha-1 urea + triple super phosphate, respectively (T8) and control (T0). The results showed that T2 treatment produced 8345 kg.ha-1 of dry matter as compared with those of other fertilizer treatments (P<0.05). This indicate that nitrogen and phosphorus efficiencies in T2 treatment were significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.05). In the mean time, nitrogen efficiency in T5 and T7 were not significantly different. However, phosphorus efficiency in T2 (52.6 %) indicated significant difference as compared with the other treatments. Nitrogen physiological efficiency of treatment in T2 (35.02 kg.kg-1) and T8 (31.6 kg.kg-1), and also P physiological efficiency in T1 and T5 were not significantly different. As a whole, the higher N physiological efficiency and also physiological efficiency of phosphorus in broiler litter reflect the ecological role of organic manure application in the production of purslane. This can also help environmental protection, as well as preventing loss of resources and phosphorus accumulation in the cropland soils.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • broiler litter
  • Phosphorus accumulation
  • purslane
  • Efficiency
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • ‎Urea.‎
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