بهبود برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم و جو با استفاده ‏از سلنیوم در شرایط دیم

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشیار گروه زراعت،‎ ‎واحد اراک،‎ ‎دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران

چکیده

تنش خشکی از عوامل مهم محدود کننده عملکرد دانه گیاهان زراعی در دیمزارها به شمار می­رود. به منظور تعیین نقش منابع و تاثیر مقادیر مختلف سلنیوم بر صفات فیزیولوژیکی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم و جو در شرایط دیم، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1394-1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اراک اجرا شد. عوامل مورد آزمایش شامل منابع سلنیوم در دو سطح سلنات و سلنیت سدیم، مقادیر سلنیوم در سه سطح صفر، 18 و 36 گرم در هکتار و دو گیاه گندم و جو بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تعداد دانه در سنبله گندم با محلول­پاشی سلنیت سدیم به مقدار 18 گرم در هکتار نسبت به شاهد 4/9 درصد و تعداد دانه در سنبله جو با مصرف سلنیت سدیم به مقدار 18و 36 گرم در هکتار نسبت به شاهد به­ترتیب 8 و 12 درصد افزایش یافتند. محلول­پاشی در دو مرحله با سلنات و سلنیت سدیم محتوای آب نسبی برگ را در گندم و جو افزایش داد. با محلول­پاشی 18 گرم در هکتار سلنیوم، عملکرد دانه از 31/1776 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تیمار شاهد به 92/1889 کیلوگرم در هکتار معادل 3/6 درصد افزایش نشان داد ولی با افزایش سلنیوم به میزان 36 گرم در هکتار، عملکرد دانه (62/1539 کیلوگرم در هکتار) نسبت به شاهدکاهش یافت. به­طورکلی، نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که در شرایط دیم، با محلول­پاشی 18 گرم در هکتار سلنیوم از منبع سلنات و سلنیت سدیم در مرحله ساقه­دهی و ظهور سنبله در گندم و جو عملکرد مطلوب حاصل می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improvement of Some Physiological Traits, Yield and Yield ‎Components of Wheat and Barley by Using Sodium Selenate and ‎Sodium Selenite in Dry Land Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nour Ali Sajedi
  • Hamid Madani
Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran.‎
چکیده [English]

Drought stress is one of the major factors limiting crop yield in dry-lands. To investigate the effect of sources and different rates of selenium on physiological traits, yield and yield components of wheat and barley in dry lands a factorial experiment based on complete randomized block design with three replicates was carried out at the Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, in 2014-2015. Experimental factors were selenium sources with two levels, (sodium selenate and sodium selenite), selenium rates with three levels, (0, 18 and 36 g.ha-1) and two crop plant (wheat and barley). The result showed that, foliar application of wheat with 18 g.ha-1 sodium selenite increased the grains per spike by 9.4% as compared to control and foliar application of barley with 18 and 36 g.ha-1 of sodium selenite increased the grains per spike by 8 and 12%, as compared to control, respectively. Two times foliar applications of these two plants with sodium selenate and sodium selenite increased their relative water content. Foliar application by 18 g/ha of selenium increased the grain yield from 1776.31 kg.ha-1 in control to 1889.92 kg.ha-1, while grain yield was decreased (about 1539.62 kg.ha-1) as compared to control when 36 g.ha-1 of selenium was used. It could be concluded that foliar application of 18 g.ha-1 selenium as sodium selenite or sodium selenite in wheat and barley during stem elongation and emergence of spike increases grain yield in dry land condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • barley
  • Drought stress
  • Grain yield
  • selenium
  • Wheat
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