پاسخ سیب‌زمینی رقم کایزر (‏Solanum tuberosum cv. Kaiser‏) به منابع ‏مختلف کودی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته رشته آگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد شهرکرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شهرکرد، ایران.‏

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد شهرکرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شهرکرد، ایران.‏

چکیده

به ‌منظور بررسی تأثیر مصرف کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی بر صفات کمی و کیفی سیب‌زمینی رقم کایزر، آزمایشی در منطقه دشت لردگان به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 94-1393 انجام شد. کودهای مورد استفاده شامل کودهای شیمیایی نیتروژن و فسفر، هر یک در دو سطح عدم استفاده و مصرف طبق آزمون خاک (نیتروژن،150 کیلوگرم در هکتار از منبع اوره و برای فسفر مصرف 130 کیلوگرم در هکتار از منبع سوپرفسفات تریپل) و کودهای زیستی ورمی­کمپوست، نیتروکسین و فسفات بارور (هر کدام در دو سطح مصرف طبق توصیه کارخانه و عدم مصرف) بودند. نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان داد که به­طورکلی کاربرد کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی دارای تأثیر معنی‌داری بر درصد نشاسته غده، طول بوته، تعداد ساقه اصلی در بوته، شاخص سطح برگ، وزن تر و خشک بوته، قطر بزرگ‌ترین و کوچک‌ترین غده، تعداد غده در بوته و عملکرد غده بودند. مقایسه میانگین­ها همچنین نشان داد که تیمارهای ترکیبی کودهای زیستی ورمی­کمپوست، نیتروکسین و فسفات بارور تأثیر بیشتری بر صفات مورد بررسی داشتند. بیشترین میزان عملکرد غده در تیمارهایی دیده شد که در آنها کودهای زیستی نیتروکسین، فسفات بارور و ورمی­کمپوست با یکدیگر ترکیب شده بودند. به‌طورکلی، نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که مصرف کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی بر بسیاری از صفات رشد رویشی، صفات مرتبط با کیفیت و شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی تأثیرگذار است. کاربرد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن به بهبود بیشتر صفات بسیار کمک نمود، درحالی‌که، مصرف توأم کود سوپر فسفات تریپل با کودهای زیستی بی­تأثیر بود. حداکثر درصد نشاسته در ماده خشک غده (27/75 درصد)، تعداد ساقه در بوته (37/6 عدد)، قطر بزرگ‌ترین غده (75/185 میلی‌متر)، قطر کوچک‌ترین غده (08/58 میلی‌متر) و عملکرد غده (50/33317 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در اثر استفاده از کودهای زیستی ورمی­کمپوست، نیتروکسین و فسفات بارور، حاصل شد. بیشترین میـزان غالب صفات در تیمارهای حاصل از ترکیب کودهای زیستی به‌دست آمـد. چنیـن به نظر می­رسد که کودهای زیستی مورد استفاده، به دلیل اثرگذاری بهتر و بیشتر روی فعالیت­های گیاهی، منجر به افزایش صفات مورد برآورد کمی و کیفی در سیب‌زمینی رقم کایزر شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of Potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kaiser) to ‎Different Sources of Fertillizers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Saeedi Saeedi 1
  • Mehrab Yadegari 2
1 Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, ‎Shahrekord, Iran.‎
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad ‎University, Shahrekord, Iran.‎
چکیده [English]

To Study of the effects of biological and chemical fertilizers applications on quantitative and qualitative traits of potato (Kaiser cultivar), a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was performed in Lordegan city in Iran during 2014. The fertilizers used were chemical nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers with two levels (nitrogen, 150 kg.ha-1 from urea resource and Phosphorous, 120 kg.ha-1 from super phosphate triple) and biological fertilizers were (nitroxin, vermicompost and phosphate barvar 2) each with two levels. The results showed that the use of nitroxin, vermicompost and phosphate barvar 2 and nitrogen andphosphorous fertilizers affected starch content, plant height, number of main stem per plant, LAI, total dry/fresh matter, the largest and smallest tuber diameter, number of tuber per plant and tuber yield, significantly. The highest tuber yield was observed by using nitroxin, vermicompost and phosphate barvar 2. Results of this research also showed that use of biological and chemical fertilizers affected vegetative traits that are related to qualitative and physiological indices. In spite of these promising effects of chemical and biological fertilizers on quantative and qualitative traits of potato, application of triple super phosphate along with biological fertilizers did not affect quality and quantity of potato. The highest starch percentage in dry matter of tuber (75.27%), number of main stem per plant (6.37), diameter of largest (185.75 mm) and smallest tuber (58.08 mm), tuber yield (33317.5 kg.ha-1), were produced by the use of biological fertilizers. Overall, results showed that the use of biofertilizeres may improve the measured traits of quantity and quality of caeser cultivar of potato and obtain the highest yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mineral nutrients
  • Morpho physiological Indices
  • Potato
  • yield
  • · Adeleye, E.O, L.S. Ayeni, and S.O. Ojeniyi. 2010. Effect of poultry manure on soil physicochemical properties, leaf nutrient contents and yield of yam (Dioscorea rotundata) on alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of American Science. 6(10): 871-878.
  • · Ahmed, A.G., S.A. Orabi, and M.S. Gaballah. 2010. Effect of bio-N-P fertilizer on the growth, yield and some biochemical components of two sunflower cultivars. International Journal of Academic Resaerch. 2: 271-277.
  • · Anonymous. 2013. http://faostat.fao.org/. Accessed November.
  • · Arrudaa, L., A. Beneduzi., A. Martins, and B. Lisboa. 2013. Screening of Rhizobacteria isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) in Rio Grande do Sul State (South Brazil) and analysis of their potential to improve plant growth. Applied Soil Ecology. 63: 15- 22.
  • · Behera, B.C., S.K. Singdevsachan, and H.N. Thatoi. 2014. Diversity, mechanism and biotechnology of phosphate solubilizing microorganism in mangrove-A review. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 3: 97–110.
  • · Bolandnazar, S., S. Khorsandi, and M. Adlipoor. 2014. The effect of bio-fertilizer (phosphate barvar2) on onion (Allium cepa L.) yield and quality. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science. 24(2): 20-30.
  • · Campiglia, E., R. Mancinelli, E. Radicetti, and F. Caporali. 2010. Effect of cover crops and mulches on weed control and nitrogen fertilization in tomato (Lycopersicom esculentum Mill.). Crop Protection. 29: 354-363.
  • · Campitelli, P., and S. Ceppi. 2008. Effects of composting technologies on the chemical and physicochemical properties of humic acids. Geoderma. 14: 325–333.
  • · Darzi, M.T., and M.R. Haj Seyed Hadi. 2012. Effects of the application of organic manure and biofertilizer on the fruit yield and yield components in Dill (Anethum graveolens). Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 6: 3266-3271.
  • · Del Amora, F.M., A. Serrano-Martinez, M.I. Forteab, and P. Leguac. 2008. The effect of plant-associative bacteria (Azospirillum and Pantoea) on the fruit quality of sweet pepper under limited nitrogen supply. Scientia Horticulturae. 117: 191–196.
  • · Ekelof, J. 2007. Potato yield and tuber set as affected by phosphorus fertilization. Master Project in the Horticultural Program 2: 20 P (3 Acts). Efficiency and Soil Fertility In a long- Term Trial. 8: 153-168.
  • · Erich, M.S., C.B. Fitzgerad, and G.A. Porter. 2002. The effect of organic amendments on phosporus chemistry in a potato cropping system. Agriculture Ecosystem Envirronment. 88: 79-88.
  • · Fageria, N.K., and V.C. Baligar. 2001. Low land rice response to nitrogen fertilization. Soil Science Plant Annual. 32(1&9): 1405-1429.
  • · Gharib, F.A., L.A. Moussa, and O.N. Massoud. 2008. Effect of compost and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil of sweet marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) plant. International Journal of Agricultural and Biology. 10(4):381-387.
  • · Ghasem Khanloo, Z., A. Nasrollahzadeh., A. Alizadeh, and N. Haji Hassani. 2009. Effect of phosphate solublizing bacteria on yield and yield components of potatoes varieties in the region chaldoran. Journal of Research in Crop Sciences. 1: 1-14. (In Persian).
  • · Guandi, B., C.A. Edwards, and N.Q. Arancon. 2002. Changes in trophic structure of soil arthropods after the application of vermicomposts. Europuian Journal of Soil Biology. 38: 161-165.
  • · Hameeda, B., O.P. Rupela, G. Reddy, and K. Satyavani. 2006. Application of plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with composts and macrofauna for growth promotion of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). Biology Fertilizeres Soils. 44: 260-266.
  • · Hasanuzzaman, M., K.U. Ahamed, N.M. Rahmatullah, and M.L. Rahman. 2010. Plant growth characters and productivity of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.) as affected by application of different manures. Journal of Food Agriculture. 22: 46-58.
  • · Hashemabadi, D., F. Zaredost, M. Barari Ziyabari, and S. Zarchini. 2012. Influence of phosphate bio-fertilizer on quantity and quality features of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). Australian Journal of Crop Science. 6(6): 1101-1109.
  • · Jat, R.S., and I.P.S. Ahlawat. 2006. Direct and residual effect of vermicompost, biofertilizers and phosphorus on soil nutrient dynamics and productivity of chickpea-fodder maize sequence. Journal of Sustainable and Agriculture. 28: 41-54.
  • · Kalloo, G., and B.O. Bergh. 2000. Genetic improvement of vegetable crop. Pergamon Press Ltd.535 pp.
  • · Karmaka, S., C. Lague., J. Agnew, and H. Landry. 2007. Integrated decision support system for manure management. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 57: 190-201.
  • · Lee, J. 2010. Effect of application methods of organic fertilizer on growth, soil chemical properties and microbial densities in organic bulb onion production. Scientia Horticulturae. 124: 299–305.
  • · Liu, M., F. Hu, X. Chen, Q. Huang, and H. Li. 2009. Organic amendments with reduced chemical fertilizer promote soil microbial development and nutrient availability in a subtropical paddy field: The influence of quantity, type and application time of organic amendments. Applied Soil Ecology. 42: 166-175.
  • · Lucas Garcıa, J.A., A. Probanza., B. Ramos, and F. Gutierrez Mañero. 2004. Effects of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) and sinorhizobium fredii on biological nitrogen fixation, nodulation and growth of Glycine max cv. osumi. Plant and Soil. 267: 143–153.
  • · Mao, J., D.C. Olk, X. Fang, and K. Schmidt-Rohr. 2008. Influence of animal manure application on the chemical structures of soil organic matter as investigated by advanced solid-state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Geoderma. 146: 353–362.
  • · Mark, K. 2014. Effectiveness of nitrogen fertilization and application of microbial preparations in potato cultivation. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 38: 299-310.
  • · Meena, V.S., B.R. Maurya, and J.P. Verma. 2014. Does a rhizospheric microorganism enhance K+ availability in agricultural soils? Microbiological Research. 169: 337–347.
  • · Minaxi Nain, L., R.C. Yadav, and J. Saxena. 2012. Characterization of multifaceted Bacillus sp. RM-2 for its use as plant growth promoting bioinoculant for crops grown in semi arid deserts. Applied Soil Ecology. 59: 124-135.
  • · Mittal, V., O. Sigh, H. Nayyar, and R. Tewari. 2008. Stimulatory effect of phosphate-solubilizng fungal starins (Aspergillus Awarvori and Pencillum Citrinum) on the yield of chickpea (Cicerarientinum L.) cv. Gpfz. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 40: 718-727.
  • · Mohammady-Aria, M., A. Lakzzian, G.H. Haghnia, and A.R. Berengi. 2010. Effect of thiobacillus, sulfur, and vermicompost on the water-soluble phosphorus of hard rock phosphate. BioresourceTechnology. 101: 551-554.
  • · Mulubrhan, H. 2004. The effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization on the yield and yield components of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown on vertisols of Mekele area. M.Sc. Thesis. Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
  • · Omidvar, Sh., M. Bourojeni, and Z. Gomroki. 2009. Geogrophy of Chaharmahal and Bakhteyari province. 10th publication. Company of Publication and Emission of Educational books of Iran. (In Persian).
  • · Padmavathiamma, P.K., L.Y. Li, and U.R. Kumari. 2008. An experimental study of vermi-biowaste composting for agricultural soil improvement. Bioresource Technology. 99: 1672-1681.
  • · Rai, M.K. 2006. Handbook of microbial biofertilizers. Haworth Press Inc., NY, USA. ISBN: 978-1-56022-269-9.
  • · Roesty, D., R. Gaur, and B.N. Johri. 2006. Plant growth stage, fertilizer management and bio-inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria affect the rhizobacterial. Community structure in rain-fed wheat fields. Journal of Plant Science. 38: 1111-1120.
  • · Rosen, C., M. Mcnearney, and P. Bierman. 2010. Evalution of specialty phosphorus fertilizer sources for potato. Northern Plains Potato Growers Association Reserch. http://www.nppga.org/crop_science/research_reports_17_2768967167.pdf. USA.
  • · Sangwan, P., C.P. Kaushik, and V.K. Garg. 2008. Vermiconversion of industrial sludge for recycling the nutrients. Bioresource Technology. 99: 8699–8704.
  • · Santos, L., D.N.E. Fernandes, and M.D. Bacchi. 2008. Impactof a biofertilizer on the chemical composition of potato and beans.IFOAM Organic World Congress, Modena, Italy, June.
  • · Shaalan, M.N. 2005. Effect of compost and different sources of biofertilizers, on borage plants (Borago officinalis L.). Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research. 83: 271-284.
  • · Shata, S.M., A. Mahmoud, and S. Siam. 2007. Improving calcareous soil productivity by integrated effect of intercropping and fertilizer. Reacerch Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 3(6): 733-739.
  • · Singh, J.S., V.C. Pandey, and D.P. Singh. 2011. Efficient soil microorganisms: A new dimension for sustainable agriculture and environmental development. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 140: 339–353.
  • · Soleymanifard, A., and S.A. Siadat. 2011. Effect of inoculation with biofertilizer in different nitrogen levels on yield and yields components of safflower under dry land conditions. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science. 11: 473-477.32.
  • · Wibowo, S.T. 2007. Kandungan hormone IAA, serpan hara, dan pertumbuhan beberapa tanaman budidaya sebagia respon terhadap aplikasi pupuk biologi Bogor: Sekolah Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor.
  • · Wijewardena, J.D.H. 2000. Comparision of animal manure sources on potato and vegetable cultivation in the upcountry. Annual Symposium of the Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka.(2): 357-369.
  • · Yadegari, M., G.H.N. Farahani, and Z. Mosadeghzad. 2012a. Bio fertilizers effects on quantitive and qualitive yield of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). African Journal Research. 7(34): 4716-4723.
  • · Yadegari, M., H. Asadi Rahmani, and G. Noormohannnadi. 2008b. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase growth, yield and nitrogen fixation in Phaseolus vulgaris. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 33(12): 1733- 1743.
  • · Yadegari, M., R. Barzegar, and R. Iranipour. 2008. The effect of sulphur and thiobacillus on nutrient availability, vegetative growth and essence production in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia. 5(2): 609-616.
  • · Zafar, M., M.K. Abbasi, M.A. Khan, and M. Aslam. 2012. Effect of plant growthpromoting rhizobacteria on growth, nodulation and nutrient accumulation of lentil under controlled conditions. Pedosphere. 22: 848–859.
  • · Zelalem, A., T. Tekalign, and D. Nigussie. 2009. Response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to different rates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on vertisols at Debre Berhan, in the central highlands of Ethiopia. African Journal of Plant Science. 3 (2): 016-024.