اثر تراکم بنه بر عملکرد کمّی و کیفی زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) با استفاده از اوره و نیتروکسین در شهرری

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد یادگار امام خمینی (ره) شهرری

2 عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد یادگار امام خمینی(ره) شهرری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

3 عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد تهران جنوب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر تراکم بنه بر صفات زیرزمینی و کیفی گیاه زعفران تحت شرایط استفاده از کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی نیتروژن­دار، آزمایشی در سال 1393 به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در در روستای قمی آباد شهرستان ری انجام شد. عامل­های آزمایش شامل تراکم بنه در سه سطح (60، 120 و 180 بنه در متر مربع) و منابع کودی در چهار سطح (عدم مصرف، کود شیمیایی نیتروژن دار به میزان 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار، کود زیستی نیتروکسین به میزان 5 لیتر در هکتار و مصرف تلفیقی کود شیمیایی نیتروژن­دار به مقدار 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار و کود زیستی نیتروکسین به مقدار 5/2 لیتر درهکتار) بود. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که تراکم بنه بر وزن تر و خشک گل، وزن خشک کلاله و خامه، قطر بنه، وزن تر بنه دختری و تعداد بنه دختری معنی­دار بود. بر این اساس با افزایش تراکم بنه­ از 60 به 180 بنه در مترمربع، عملکرد خشک کلاله زعفران تا 7/2 برابر افزایش یافت. این در حالی بود ‌که افزایش تراکم بر صفاتی نظیر قطر بنه، وزن تر بنه دختری و تعداد بنه دختری اثر منفی داشته و منجربه کاهش عملکرد صفات مذکور گردید. کاربرد کود زیستی نیتروکسین از نظر رشد رویشی و عملکرد زعفران با تولید 08/2 کیلوگرم در هکتار کلاله به همراه خامه خشک نسبت به سایر تیمارهای کودی برتری داشت و بر مؤلفه­های کیفی زعفران (کروسین، پیکروکروسین و سافرانال) نیز بالاترین تأثیر را اعمال نمود. در مجموع استفاده از تراکم­های بالا به منظور حصول عملکرد مناسب و استفاده توأم از کود نیتروکسین و کود اوره به­عنوان جایگزینی برای کاهش تدریجی مصرف کود شیمیایی اوره توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Corm Density on Yield and Qualitative Traits of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under Different Urea and Biological Fertilizers in Shahr-e-Rey Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza pazoki 1
  • Mohammad Kariminejad Kariminejad 2
  • Alireza Foladi Targhi 3
1 Associate Professor of Islamic Azad University, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre-rey Branch
2 Young researchers and Elite Club, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre-rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Young researchers and Elite Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of corm density on yield and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under different biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized block design with 3 replications was done in 2014 at Shahr-e-Rey region (Ghomi Abad). The experimental factors were: corm density in 3 levels (60, 120 and 180 corm per square meter) and biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers in 4 levels (without fertilizer application, 150 kg.ha-1 of Urea, 5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin and 75 kg.ha-1 of Urea +5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin). The results indicated that the corm density affects number of daughter corm, fresh daughter corm weight, corm diameter, dry stigma and style weight, dry and fresh flower weight significantly. Mean comparisons also indicated that by increasing corm density from 6o to 180, saffron dry yield of saffron improved by 2.7 fold. However, increasing corm density reduced corm diameter, fresh corm daughter weight and their numbers per square meter. It can be concluded that nitroxin as an organic fertilizer, increases vegetative traits and saffron dry yield (stigma + style weight) to 2.08 kg.ha-1 and highly improves in qualitative traits like Safranal, Picrocrocin, and Crocin. It can be also said that combined use of nitroxin and urea would be an alternative method to reduce application of urea.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological and chemical fertilizer
  • Corm
  • Density
  • qualitative traits
  • saffron
  • · Abbasi, F., and M. Jahani. 2007. Allelopathic effects of saffron corms on seed germination of several important crops. II International Symposium on Saffron: Forthcoming Challenges in Cultivation, Research and Economics. Acta Horticulture. 739: 269-273.
  • · Abdullaev, F.I., and J.J. Espinosa-Aguirre. 2004. Biomedical properties of saffron and its potential use in cancer therapy and chemoprevention trials. Cancer DetectionandPrevention. 28: 426–432.
  • · Alipoor Miandehi, Z., S. Mahmodi, M. A. Behdani, and M.S. Sayyari. 2013. Effect of manure bio-and chemical- fertilizers and corm size on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield and yield components. Agronomy Research Journal. 1(2):73-84.
  • · Amiri, M.E. 2008. Impact of animal manures and chemical fertilizers on yield components of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 4: 274–279.
  • · Atefi, S.M. 2006. Safron (Crocus sativus): Chemistry, quality control and processing. Beyn-Alnahrain Press. 192 PP. (In Persian).
  • · Bachman, G.R., and J.D. Metzger. 2008. Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost. Bioresource Technology. 99: 3155–3161.
  • · Behnia, M.R., and M. Mokhtari. 2010. Effect of planting methods and corm density in saffron (Crocussativus L.) yield. Acta Horticulture. 850: 131-136.
  • · De Juan, J.A., H.L. Corcolesb, R.M. Munoz, and M.R. Picornell. 2009. Yield and yield components of saffron under different cropping systems. Industrial Crops and Products. 30: 212–219.
  • · Eldin, M.S., S. Elkholy, J.A. Fernandez, H. Junge, R. Cheetham, J. Guardiola, and P. Weathers. 2008. Bacillus subtilis FZB24 affects flower quantity and quality of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Planta Medica. 13(74): 16–20.
  • · Han, H.S., M. Supanjani, and K.D. Lee. 2006. Effect of coin coculation with phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria on mineral uptake and growth of pepper and cucumber. Plant Soil Environ. 52 (3): 130-6.
  • · Hosseinzadeh, H., and H. Younesi. 2002. Petal and stigma extracts of Crocus sativus L. have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice. BMC Pharmacology. 2(7): 1-8.
  • · Kafi, M. 2002. Saffron (Technology and Processing). Mashhad Ferdosi University Publication. 280 PP. (In Persian).
  • · Koocheki, A., M. Jahani, L. Tabrizi, and A.J.L. Mohammad Abadi. 2011a. Investigation on the effect of biofertilizer, chemical fertilizer and plant density on yield and corm criteria of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Water and Soil. 25(1): 196-206. (In Persian).
  • · Koocheki. A., L. Tabrizi, M. Jahani, and A.J.L. Mohammad Abadi. 2011 b. An avaluation of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corm planting rate and pattern on the crop's performance. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science. 42(4): 391-397. (In Persian).
  • · Kumar, R., V. Sing, K. Devi, M. Sharma, M.K. Singh, and P.S. Ahuja. 2009. State of art of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) agronomy: A comprehensive review. Food Reviews International. 25: 44-85.
  • · Moayedi Shahraki, E., M. Jami Al-Ahmadi, and M.A. Behdani. 2010. Study of energy efficiency of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Southern Khorasan. Journal of Agroecology. 2: 55–62. (In Persian).
  • · Mohebi, N.K., and B. Klarestaghi. 2012. Effect of animal manure and crop density on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) flowering. 12th Iranian Crop Science Congress. Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch.
  • · Naderi Darbaghshahi, M.R., S.M. Khajehbashi, S.A. Bani Taba, and S.M. Dehdashti. 2008 .Effects of planting method, density and depth on yield and production period of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Isfahan region. Seed and Plant Production Journal. 24: 657-643. (In Persian).
  • · Naderi Darbaghshahi, M.R., S.M. Khajebashi, S.A. Bani Taba, and S.M. Dehdashti. 2009. Effects of planting method, density and depth on yield and production period of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Isfahan region. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal. 24: 643–657. (In Persian).
  • · Naghdi Badi, H., H. Omidi, A. Golzad, H. Torabi, and M.H. Fotookian. 2014. Change in crocin, safranal and picrocrocin content and agronomical characters of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under biological and chemical of phosphorous fertilizers. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 4 (40): 58-68.
  • · Nieto, K.F., and W.T. Frankenberger. 1991. Influence of adenine, isopentyl alcohol and Azotobacter chroococcum on vegetative growth of Zea mays. Plant and Soil. 135: 213 - 21.
  • · Omidi, F., H. Naghdi Badi, A. Golzad, H. Torabi, and M.H. Footoukian. 2009. The effect of chemical and bio-fertilizer source of nitrogen on qualitative and quantitative yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2 (30): 98-109.
  • · Patten, C.L., and B.R. Glick. 1996. Bacterial biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acide. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 42: 207 - 20.
  • · Rezvani Moghaddam, P., S. Khorramdel, A. Amin Ghafori, and J. Shabahang. 2013. Evaluation of growth and yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) affected by spent mushroom compost and corm density. Saffron Agronomy and Technology. 1:13-27. (In Persian).
  • · Rojas, A., G. Holguin, B. Glick, and Y. Bashan. 2001. Synergism between Phyllobacterium sp. (N2 –Fixer), and Bacillus licheniformis (P-Solubilizer), both from a Semiarid mangrove rhizosphere. FEMS Microbiology Echology. 35: 181 - 7.
  • · Temperini, O., R. Rea, A. Temperini, G. Colla, and Y. Rouphael. 2009. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) production in Italy: Effects of the age of saffron fields and plant density. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 7: 19-23.
  • Winterhalter, P., and M. Straubinger. 2000. Saffron renewed interest in an ancient spice. Food Reviews International. 16(1): 39-59.
  • Xi, L., Z. Qian, G. Xu, S. Zheng, S. Sun, N. Wen, L. Sheng, Y. Shi, and Y. Zhang. 2007. Beneficial impact of crocetin, a carotenoid from saffron, on insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. JournalofNutritional Biochemistry. 18: 64–72.