عملکرد پیاز خوراکی (Allium cepa L.) تحت تاثیر کودهای شیمیایی و کمپوست

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، واحد ملکان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ملکان، ایران

2 استادیار بخش علوم زراعی-باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان شرقی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تبریز، ایران

3 استادیار، واحد ملکان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ملکان، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور دست­یابی به نسبت مناسب کود شیمیایی و کمپوست در جهت افزایش عملکرد اقتصادی پیاز، تحقیقی در مزرعه ایستگاه تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ملکان در سال 92 اجرا گردید. آزمایش به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار به مورد اجرا گذاشته شد. عامل کود (A) در کرت­های اصلی در شش سطح (مقدار توصیه شده کودهای شیمیایی به عنوان شاهد (a14/3 تیمار شاهد + 4 تن در هکتار کمپوست (a22/1 تیمار شاهد + 8 تن در هکتار کمپوست (a34/1 برابر تیمار شاهد + 12 تن در هکتار کمپوست (a4) و کمپوست به میزان 16 و 20 تن در هکتار (a5 و a6) و ارقام (B) قولی قصه زنجان (b1) و قرمز آذرشهر (b2) در کرت­های فرعی قرار داده شدند. رقم قرمز آذرشهر در کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه نسبت به رقم قولی قصه زنجان برتر بود. اثر سطوح کودی بر کلیه صفات به غیر از تعداد لایه خوراکی معنی­دار بود و a1 در این صفات نسبت به سطوح کودی دیگر بیشترین مقدار را داشت. برهمکنش کود × رقم در کلیه صفات غیر معنی­دار شد. کاربرد ترکیبی کودهای معدنی و کمپوست تاثیر مثبت معنی­دار بر صفات رشدی گیاه، قطر پیاز، عملکرد تک بوته و عملکرد کل نسبت به مصرف کود کمپوست به تنهایی داشت. نتایج نشان داد که مصرف 4/3 و 2/1 a1 و جایگزینی آن با کمپوست به ترتیب به میزان 4 و 8 تن در هکتار (a2 و a3) کاهش معنی­داری در عملکرد تک بوته و عملکرد کل پیاز نسبت به مصرف کود شیمیایی (a1) به تنهایی نداشت. بنابراین کاربرد 4/3 تیمار شاهد + 4 تن در هکتار کمپوست (a2) و یا 2/1 تیمار شاهد + 8 تن در هکتار کمپوست (a3) برای کشت پیاز در منطقه قابل توصیه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Compost Combination and Chemical Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Onion (Allium cepa L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Rezayi Ghyasi 1
  • Seyyed Ali Mousavizadeh 2
  • Elnaz Farajzadeh Meamari Tabrizi 3
1 M.Sc. Graduated Student, Malekan Branch, Azad Islamic University, Malekan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Horticulture Crops Research Department, East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Tabriz, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Malekan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Malekan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to find suitable ratio of chemical fertilizer and compost, to increase economic yield of onion, a study was carried out at the Malekan Agricultural Farm and Natural Resources Research and Education Station in 2013. The experiment was done in split plot using RCBD with three replications. Fertilizers (A) were asseigned to main plots with six levels (recommended dosage of chemical fertilizers as control (a1), ¾ of the control + 4 ton ha-1 of compost (a2), ½ of the control + 8 ton ha-1 compost (a3), ¼ of the control + 12 ton ha-1 compost (a4) and the compost alone (16 and 20 ton ha-1) (a5 and a6)) and cultivars to subplots with five levels , (B) (Zanjan Qoli Qissa (b1) and Red Azarshahr (b2)). Red Azarshahr was superior to Qoli Qissa in all traits. Fertilizer levels had significant effects on all traits, except number of edible layers, and a1 was highest amount in these traits compared to other fertilizer rates. The interaction of fertilizer × cultivar was not significant in all traits. Combined use of chemical fertilizers and compost had significant positive effect on vegetative traits, bulb diameter, yield per plant and total yield as compared to that of using compost alone. Using ¾ a1 and ½ a1 along with the rate of 4 and 8 t.ha-1 (a2 anda3) of compost had no significant decreasing effect on bulb weight per plant and yield as compared with chemical fertilizer application alone (a1). Thus use of ¾ the control treatment + 4 ton ha-1 of compost (a2) and ½ of the control treatment + 8 ton ha-1 of compost (a3) can be recommended to the region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bulb diameter
  • Bulb weight
  • Chemical Fertilizer
  • compost
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