بهبود عملکرد سویا (Glycine max L.) با محلول‌پاشی اوره در مراحل رشدی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دزفول

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر محلول­پاشی نیتروژندر مراحل مختلف رشد سویا، این آزمایش در تابستان سال 1393 در شهرستان شوش، شمال استان خوزستان به صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصـادفی در سـه تکرار اجـرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش در چهار سطح کودی شامل شاهد (بدون محلول­پاشی نیتروژن)، 25، 50 و 75 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار از منبع کود اوره (46 درصد نیتروژن خالص) به­عنوان کرت اصلی و زمان محلول­پاشی در مراحل مختلف رشد در سه سطح شامل مرحله رویشی، مرحله گلدهی و مرحله غلاف­دهی به­عنوان کرت فرعی بودند. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس داده­های آماری نشان داد که صفات مورد بررسی در این آزمایش از قبیل شاخص سطح برگ، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت، درصد و عملکرد پروتئین در واکنش به تیمارهای محلول­پاشی نیتروژن، مراحل مختلف رشد و برهمکنش سطوح مختلف محلول­پاشی نیتروژن در مراحل مختلف رشد، تحت تاثیر معنی­داری قرار گرفتند. درصد روغن و عملکرد روغن فقط تحت تاثیر تیمارهای میزان محلول­پاشی نیتروژن و مراحل مختلف رشد اثر معنی­دار شد در حالی که اثر برهمکنش سطوح مختلف محلول­پاشی نیتروژن و مراحل مختلف رشد بر درصد و عملکرد روغن معنی­دار نبود. در این آزمایش محلول­پاشی نیتروژن عملکرد دانه را افزایش داد، به طوری­که بیشترین میزان عملکرد دانه با 2466 کیلوگرم در هکتار مربوط به تیمار 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به­صورت محلول­پاشی در مرحله­ی رشد رویشی و کمترین میزان عملکرد دانه با 1295 کیـلوگرم در هکتار مربوط به تیمار شــاهد (بدون محلول­پاشی نیتروژن) در مرحله غلاف­دهی بود. به طورکلی، نتایج نشان داد که تیمار 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار به صورت محلول­پاشی در مرحله­ی رشد رویشی را می­توان به عنوان بهترین گزینه مدیریت محلول­پاشی نیتروژن برای سویا در نظر گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improvement of Soybean (Glycine max L.) Yield with Urea Foliar Application at Growth Stages

نویسنده [English]

  • Mahmood Tohidi
Faculty member, Islamic Azad University Dezful Branch
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effects of nitrogen foliar application at different growth stages of soybean on the yield and yield components this experiment was performed in Shush, north of Khuzestan, Iran, during growing season of 2014. The experiment was in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental treatments consisted of four levels of nitrogen fertilizer foliar applications as control (no nitrogen foliar application), 25, 50 and 75 kg/ha pure nitrogen from urea source (46% pure nitrogen) assigned to the main plots and spraying times in three levels, at vegetative stage, flowering stage and podding stage to the subplots. Results showed that the effects of nitrogen foliar application on traits measured in this experiment like leaf area index, number of pod per plant, number of seeds per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, biologic yield, harvest index, protein percent and protein yield and also interaction of different levels of nitrogen foliar application and different growth stages, were significant. Oil percent and yield were only significant under the effect of nitrogen foliar application treatments at different growth stages while the interaction of different levels of nitrogen foliar application and different growth stages, were not significant. In this experiment nitrogen foliar application increased seed yield. The highest seed yield amounted to 2466 kg/ha when 50kg/ha of foliar nitrogen applied at vegetative growth stage and lowest seed yield amounted to 1295 kg/ha in the control treatment at the stage of podding. In general, results demonstrated that 50 kg/ha treatment could be considered as the best management option of nitrogen foliar application for soybean at vegetative growth stage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • foliar
  • Growth stage
  • nitrogen
  • soybean
  • · Abbas Dokht, H., and H. Marvie. 2005. Effect nitrogen of foliar application on yield and yield components of weath. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science. 6: 1325-1331. (In Persian).

 

  • · Amany, A. 2007. Effect of plant density and urea foliar application on yield and yield components of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 3(4): 220-223.

 

  • · Angadi, S.V., H.W. Cufprth., B.B. Mc Conkey, and Y. Gan. 2003. Yield adjustment by canola grown at different plant population under semiarid conditions. Crop Science. 43: 1358-1360.

 

  • · Borjian, A., and Y. Emam. 2000. Effect pre­-anthesis urea foliar application on yield and yield components and grain protein percent of two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Science. 1: 23-29. (In Persian).

 

  • · Caliskan, S., I. Ozakaya, M.E. Caliskan, and M. Arslan. 2008. The effects of nitrogen and iron fertilization on growth, yield and fertilizer use efficiency of soybean in a Mediterraneantype soil. Field Crops Research. 108: 126-132.

 

  • · Cheraghi, S., M. Rafiei, and A. Khorgami. 2011. The Effect of foliar application of nitrogen at different dates, and planting method on grain yield, and yield components of mung bean in the environmental conditions of Khoramabad. Journal of Crop Physiology. 9: 15-29. (In Persian).

 

  • · Cober E.R., and H.D. Voldeng. 2000. Developing high-protein, high-yield soybean population and lines. Crop Science. 40: 39-42.

 

  • · Daneshmand, A.R., A.H. Shirani-Rad, Gh. Noormohamadi, Gh. Zarei, and J. Daneshian. 2008. Effect of water stress and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on seed yield and its components, nitrogen uptake and water use and nitrogen utility efficiency in two rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 10(3): 244-261. (In Persian).

 

  • · Ebadi, A., A. Tobe., H. Karbalaee Khiavi, and Z. Khodadoost. 2006. Effect of mineral nitrogen consuption on soybean yield and yield components in water deficit condition. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi. 71: 51-57. (In Persian).

 

  • · Fageria, N.K., and V.C. Baligar. 2005. Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. Agronomy Journal. 88: 97-185.

 

  • · Fatemi naghdeh, S.H., and A. Soroush zade. 2002. Investigate the effects of planting date and nitrogen foliar application and boron reproduction stages on oil and protein content in soybean. Seventh Iranian Agronomy and Plants Breeding Sciences Congres, Karaj. (In Persian).

 

  • · Fehr, W.R., C.E. Caviness, D.T. Burmood, and J.S. Pennington. 1971. Stage of development soybean descriptions for soybean. Crop Science. 1: 929-931.

 

  • · Hatami, H., A. Aeinehband, A. Soltani, and Gh.R. Dadkhah. 2009. Response of soybean varieties to fertilizer Nitrogen and potassium Application in North Khorasan. Journals of New Agricultural Science. 15: 13-23. (In Persian).
  • · Hay, R., and J. Porter. 2006. The physiology of crop yield. Blackwell Publishing. 314 P.

 

  • · Jin J., X.B. Liu, and G.H. Wang. 2003. Soybean canopy structure during reproductive stages under different populations. System Science Comprehensive Student Agriculture. 19: 124–128.

 

  • · Kaushal, T., M. Onda, S. Ito, A. Yamazaki, H. Fujikake, N. Ohtake, K. Sueyoshi, Y. Takahashi, and T. Ohyama. 2006. Effect of placement of slow- release fertilizer (Lime nitrogen) applied at different rates on growth, N2 fixation and yield of soybean (Glycine max). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 192: 417-426.

 

  • · Khajehpour, M.R. 2007. Industrial crops. Isfahan University Press. 564 pp. (In Persian).

 

  • · Khan, P., M.Y. Memon, M. Imtiaz, and M. Aslam. 2009. Response of wheat to foliar and soil application of urea at different growth stages. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 41(3): 1197-1204.

 

  • · Kocon, A. 2003. Effect of nitrogen utilization from urea applied in leaves and in soil by wheat and bean. Acta Agrophysica. 85: 55-63.

 

  • · Koocheki, A., and G.H. Sarmadnia. 2005. Physiology of crop plants. 400pp. (In Persian).

 

  • · Kumudini, S., D.J. Hume, and G. Chu. 2002. Genetic improvements in shortseason soybean, nitrogen accumulation, remobilization and partitioning. Crop Science. 24: 141–145.

 

  • · Malakooti, M.J., and M. Homaei. 2004. Fertility soils of arid regions (problems and solutions). Tarbiat Modares University Press. 518 pp. (In Persian).

 

  • · Mengel, K., and E.A. Kirkby. 2001. Principles of plant nutritions. Kluwer Academic Publication. 849 pp.

 

  • · Mohammadzadeh, A., N. Majnoon Hosseini, H. Moghadam, and M. Akbari. 2012. Effect of drought stress different levels and nitrogen on yield and yield components of red bean two genotypes. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 43(1): 29-38. (In Persian).

 

  • · Montemurro, F., and D. Giorgio. 2005. Quality and nitrogen use efficiency of sunflower grown at different nitrogen levels under Mediterranean conditions. Journal of Plant Natrition. 28: 335-350.

 

  • · Morshed, R.M., M.M. Rahman, and M.A. Rahman. 2008. Effect of nitrogen on seed yield, protein content and nutrient uptake of soybean (Glycine max L.). Journal of Agricuture Rural Development. 6 (1&2): 13-17.

 

  • · Morshedi, A., and H. Naghibi. 2001. Effect of urea spray application on yield, yield components, oil and protein content of rape seed. 7th Iranian Soil Science Congress. 26- 29 Aug. ShahrKord University. (In Persian).

 

  • · Naga Jyothi, Ch., K. Ravichandra, and K. Sudhakara Babu. 2013. Effect of foliar supplementation of nitrogen and zinc on soybean (Glycine max L.) yield, quality and nutrient uptake. Indian Journal of Dryland Agricultural Research and Development. 28(2): 46-48.

 

  • · Osborne, S.L., and W.F, Riedell. 2006. Starter nitrogen fertilizer impact on soybean yield and quality in the northern great plains. Agronomy Journal. 98: 1569-1574.

 

  • · Rahimiyan, H., and M. Bannayan. 1997. Physiological Basics of plant breeding. University of Mashhad Press. 344 pp. (In Persian).

 

  • · Rasoli, N., H.R. Rosta, and M.H. Shamshiri. 2011. Green bean reaction to NaHCO3 treatment affected nitrogen form evaluation. Horticulture Science Journal. 5(4): 434-442. (In Persian).

 

  • · Sadeghipour, A., and R. Monem. 2009. Effect nitrogen deficiency stress and Phosphorus on percent and mungbean seed protein yield. Journal of Environmental Stresses and Plant Sciences. 1(2): 159-167.

 

  • · Salehin, F., and S. Rahman. 2012. Effects of zinc and nitrogen fertilizer and their application method on yield and yield components of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Agricultural Sciences Journal. 3(1): 9-13.

 

  • · Shirani, B., M. Khodambashi, S. Fallah, and A. Danesh-Shahraki. 2015. Effects of foliar application of nitrogen, zinc and manganese on yield, yield components and grain quality of chickpea in two growing seasons. Journal of Crop Production and Processing. 5(16): 143-152. (In Persian).

 

  • · Shoghi Kalkhoran, S., A. Ghalavand, S.A.M. Modarres-Sanavy, and P. Akbari. 2010. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and bio fertilizer application on yield and quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 12 (4) 467-481. (In Persian).

 

  • · Soroush, M., M. Ashori, and E. Amiri. 2014. Effect of foliar application of nitrogen and zinc on the yield and yield components of soybeans. Journal of Plant Ecophisiology. 19: 18-29. (In Persian).

 

  • · Sultana, S., J. Ullah, F. Karim, and A. Asaduzzaman. 2009. Response of mungbean to integrated nitrogen and weed managements. American-Eurasian Journal of Agronomy. 2(2): 104-108.

 

  • · Taylor, R.S., D.B. Weaver, C.W. Wood, and E.V. Santen. 2005. Nitrogen application increases yield and early dry matter accumulation in late-planted soybean. Crop Science. 45: 854-858.

 

  • · Torbatynjad, N., V. Chaichi, and S. Sharif. 2002. Effect of nitrogen levels on yield and yield components of three sorghum cultivars in Gorgan region. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 2: 205-219. (In Persian).

 

  • · Tousikehal, P., M. Esfahani, M. Rabiei, and B. Rabiei. 2011. Effect of concentration and timing of application of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer on dry matter remobilization, grain yield and yield components of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cv. Hayola 401. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 13(2): 352-367. (In Persian).

 

  • · Turk, M.A., A.M. Tawaha, and M.K.J. El-Shatnawi. 2003. Response of lentil(Lens culinaris M.) to plant density , sowing date, phosphorus fertilization and ethephon application in the absence of moisture stress. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 189(1):1-6.
  • · Venkatesh, M.S., and P.S. Basu. 2011. Effect of foliar application of urea on growth, yield and quality of chickpea under rainfed conditions. Journal of Food Legumes. 24(2): 110-112.