ارزیابی ویژگی‌های کمّی و کیفی کشت مخلوط ذرت و خلرتحت تاثیر کودهای آلی، زیستی و شیمیایی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

3 استاد، موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

چکیده

کشت مخلوط محصولات علوفه­ای و استفاده تلفیقی از کودهای آلی و شیمیایی از اهمیت خاصی برخوردار می­باشد. به منظور بررسی صفات کمی و کیفی کشت مخلوط ذرت و خلرتحت تاثیر کودهای آلی، زیستی و شیمیایی آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در مزرعه یالیان قزوین در دو سال زراعی 1392 و 1393 انجام شد. سطوح کشت شامل : ذرت خالص،کشت مخلوط ذرت وافزایشی خلر (25%  تراکم خلر خالص)،کشت مخلوط ذرت و افزایشی خلر (50% تراکم خلر خالص) و خلر خالص، سطوح کودی شامل: شیمیایی (پایه و سرک)، کود دامی گاوی (پایه) و مرغی سرک، کود دامی گاوی (پایه) و شیمیایی سرک و کود دامی گاوی (پایه) و شیمیایی (سرک و محلول پاشی)، در سه تیمار اخیر به همراه تلقیح بذر ذرت و خلر با ازتوباکتر و استفاده از مایکوریز در بستر کشت بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین میزان علوفه ذرت با عملکرد 84230 کیلوگرم در هکتار از تیمار ذرت خلر 50% دامی شیمیایی تولید گردید. کشت مخلوط یک روش مناسب برای تولید محصول است و کمیت تولید را نسبت به کشت­های خالص افزایش می­دهد. بیشترین میزان علوفه خلر با عملکرد 46020 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دلیل نفوذ بیشتر نور درکانوپی و عدم رقابت با ذرت، از تیمارخلر خالص دامی- شیمیایی تولید شد. بیشترین میزان کربوهیدرات از تیمار ذرت خالص شیمیایی- شیمیایی با میانگین 59/30 درصد، بیشترین میزان پروتئین خام با میانگین 75/24 درصد از تیمار خلر خالص شیمیایی حاصل شد. بیشترین قابلیت هضم ماده خشک و علوفه­ای با کیفیت بالاتر با میانگین 08/ 68 درصد از تیمار ذرت خلر 25% دامی- شیمیایی به­دست آمد. کشت مخلوط وکاربرد توام کود های شیمیایی و آلی سبب بهبود کمی و کیفی عملکرد علوفه گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Corn and Grass pea as Affected by Organic, Chemical and Bio Fertilizers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Shahbaghi 1
  • Alireza Valadabadi 2
  • Jahanfar Daneshiyan 3
  • Amir Hossein ShiraniRad 3
  • Saeid Seyfzadeh 4
1 Ph.D. Graduated of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Azad Islamic University, Takestan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Azad Islamic University, Takestan, Iran
3 Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Azad Islamic University, Takestan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Intercropping of forage cropsand the combined use of organic, chemical,and biofertilizers is of great importance. To evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics of corn and grass pea intercropping under organic and chemical fertilizers factorial experiments in a randomized complete block design with three replications were conducted in Yalian Farm of Qazvin, Iran, in 2013 and 2014. Levels of intercropping consisted of: corn sole croppings, intercropping of maize and 25% grass pea, intercropping corn and 50% grass pea, and grass pea sole cropping. Fertilizer levels were chemicals (base and top dress), cow manure (base) and avian manure top dress, cow manure (base) and chemical top dress, and cow manure (base) and chemical (top dress and spraying). In the last three treatments corn and grass pea seed inoculated with Azotobacter and mycorrhiza. The results showed that the highest corn forage yield with 84230 kg/ha produced from grass pea corn treated with 50% chemical manure. Intercropping is a suitable method for crop production and increasing quantity of crop as compared with sole croppings. The highest forage with 46020 kg/ha was produced by grass pea chemical manure treatment because of more light penetration to the canopy and the lack of competition with corn. Highest carbohydrates %30.5 belonged to the use of chemical fertilizer in sole cropping of corn and the highest crude protein with %24.75 is produced from chemical fertilizer in pure grass pea sole cropping and the highest dry matter digestibility and higher quality forage with %68.08 from the use of manure %25 grass pea/corn intercropping. Intercropping and mixed application of chemical and organic fertilizers improve the quality and quantity of forage yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • corn
  • grass pea
  • Fertilizer
  • Intercropping
  • Forage quality
  • yield

 

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