کنترل علف‌های هرز به‌وسیله مالچ زنده ذرت و تاثیر آن بر دو رقم سیب‌زمینی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

یکی از راهکارهای بیولوژیک در مدیریت علف‎های هرز سیب‎زمینی، استفاده از مالچ‎های زنده است. پژوهش حاضر به­صورت یک آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در یک مزرعه تحقیقاتی واقع در منطقه فریدون­شهر استان اصفهان در سال 1394 اجرا شد. تیمارهای این آزمایش شامل دو رقم آریندا و آگریا و 3 سیستم کشت تک­کشتی سیب‎زمینی با علف هرز، تک­کشتی سیب‎زمینی بدون علف‎های هرز و کشت سیب‎زمینی همراه با مالچ‎ زنده ذرت بودند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه مانند ارتفـاع بوته، وزن خشک شـاخسـاره، تعـداد غـده در بوته و عملکرد غده سیب­زمینی به جز میانگین وزن غده تحت تاثیر تیمار رقم در سطح پنج درصد معنی­دار بود ولیکن، ارتفاع بوته و تعداد غده در بوته در سطح یک درصد و وزن خشک شاخساره، میانگین وزن غده و عملکرد غده در سطح پنج درصد تحت تاثیر تیمار سیستم کشت قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که گیاه پوششی ذرت کشت شده همراه سیب‎زمینی، بیشترین میزان کاهش در تراکم علف‎های هرز غالب مزرعه را دارا بود. بیشترین و کمترین میزان نور عبوری قبل از کف‎بری گیاه پوششی، به­ترتیب مربوط به وجین کامل و ذرت بودند. بیشترین کاهش ارتفاع گیاه سیب‎زمینی، مربوط به تیمار ذرت کشت شده همراه سیب‎زمینی بود که با توجه به همبستگی بین ارتفاع و توان رقابتی گونه‎ها این امر توجیه‎پذیر می‎باشد، زیرا که با افزایش فشار رقابت، ارتفاع گیاه زراعی کاهش می‎یابد. بیشترین وزن خشک بوته سیب‎زمینی (79/121 گرم) مربوط به تیمار وجین شده و پس از آن به ترتیب تیمارهای ذرت و شاهد بدون وجین علف‎های هرز قرار داشتند. بیشترین میانگین وزن غده (33/65 گرم) و عملکرد غده (44/677 گرم در بوته) به­ترتیب مربوط به تیمارهای مالچ ذرت و وجین کامل علف­هرز و کمترین میزان آن برای این دو صفت به تیمار بدون وجین علف­های هرز مربوط بودند. به­طورکلی، مالچ زنده با کاهش تراکم علف هرز تاج­خروس (38/4 بوته در مترمربع) توانایی زیادی در کنترل علف­های هرز در مزرعه سیب­زمینی داشت که این می­تواند به دلیل سایه­اندازی و یا توان رقابتی بالاتر آن باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Weeds Control by Living Mulch of Maize and Their Effect on Two Potato Cultivars

نویسنده [English]

  • Zohrab Adavi
Assistant Professor of Agronomy, Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Using live mulches is one of the biologic methods for weed control in potato. This research was conducted as a factorial experiment based on RCBD with four replications at the Research Field of Fereydunshahr of Esfahan during 2015. The treatments consisted of two cultivars: Arinda and Agria and three planting systems of potato: weedy sole cropping, weed-free sole cropping and potato inter cropped with maize. Analysis of variance showed that all traits like plant height, plant dry weight, tuber number per plant and tuber yield, except average weight of tuber, were influenced by variety at five percent level of significance. However, plant height and tuber number per plant were influenced by planting system at the level of one percent and plant dry weight, average weight of tuber and tuber yield at the level of five percent significance. The results also showed that potato intercropped with maize reduced highly weed density. The highest and the lowest penetration light were related to weed-free and maize, respectivey. The highest reduction in potato height was found in maize. This might be due to correlation of height and competitiveness of species, because by increasing plant competition height was increased. The highest plant dry weight of potato (121.79g) was related to weed free condition and following by maize, weedy sole cropping. The highest average tuber weight (65.33 g) and tuber yield (677.44 g) belonged to maize, weed free treatments, and lower values of these traits were founded in weedy sole cropping treatment. Overall, live mulches by reducing density of Amaranth (plants per 38.4 m2) was able to control weeds in potato field. This could be attributed to its effects on shading and/or higher competitivness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Planting system
  • competition
  • Live mulch
  • Tuber yield
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