بررسی رابطه منبع-مخزن در گندم از طریق مقایسه وزن و تعداد دانه در ارقام قدیم و جدید

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 گروه کشاورزی، واحد پارس‌آباد مغان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، پارس‌آباد مغان، ایران

چکیده

رشد و پر شدن دانه در گندم توسط مقدار عرضه مواد فتوسنتزی (قدرت منبع)، توانایی جذب مواد فتوسنتزی (قدرت مخزن) و تعادل بین قدرت منبع – مخزن کنترل می­شود. هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی رابطه منبع یا مخزن در گندم از طریق مطالعه روند تغییرات وزن دانه و تعداد دانه در طی سال­های اصلاح گندم بود. پژوهش حاضر در مزرعه آموزشی-پژوهشی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مغان- دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی در سال زراعی 90-1389 اجرا گردید. تعداد 81 رقم گندم در شرایط آبی و در قالب طرح لاتیس ساده با دو تکرار مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. تفاوت معنی­داری میان ارقام گندم از نظر صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک مشاهده شد. عموماً ارقام جدید گندم در مقایسه با انواع قدیمی آن دارای عملکرد دانه بالا بودند. این روند در مورد شاخص برداشت و تعداد دانه در متر مربع نیز دیده شد اما تفاوت معنی­داری بین ارقام قدیمی و جدید گندم از نظر عملکرد بیولوژیک و وزن هزار دانه وجود نداشت. وزن سنبله در زمان گرده افشانی و رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک و همچنین مقدار تسهیم مواد فتوسنتزی به سنبله در فاصله زمانی گرده افشانی تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک در طی روند اصلاحی گندم افزایش یافته و مقدار آنها در گندم­های جدید بیشتر از قدیمی بود. افزایش تعداد دانه در گندم­های جدید و نبود تغییر معنی­دار در وزن هزار دانه در گذر از سال­های قدیمی به جدید پیشنهاد می­کند که احتمالاً عملکرد دانه ارقام مورد آزمایش بیشتر توسط قدرت مخزن کنترل می­شود. بنابراین، در شرایط آزمایش حاضر افزایش تعداد دانه در بوته یا در متر مربع احتمالاً با افزایش عملکرد دانه همراه خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Study of Source-Sink Relations by Comparison of Weight and Grain in the Modern and Old Wheat Cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Joudi 1
  • shahram mehri 2
1 Meshkin Shahr Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Department of Agriculture, ParsAbad Moghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, ParsAbad Moghan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Seed filling in wheat is controlled by the availability of substrate (source strength), the capacity of the organs to utilize it for seed growth (sink strength). The aim of this research was to study source-sink relations in wheat, through seed weight and grain number in new and old wheat cultivars. The experiment was performed at Moghan College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Research Farm (University of Mohaghegh Ardabili) during 2010-2011 growing season. The plant materials (81 wheat cultivars) were evaluated using a simple lattice design with two replications under well-watered condition. The results showed that there were significant differences for measured agronomic and physiologic traits among wheat cultivars tested. Overall, new wheat cultivars showed high values of seed yield as compared with the old ones. This trend was also observed in the cases of harvest index (HI) and grain number per square meter. There were no significant differences in biological yield and 1000-grain weight between old and new cultivars. Spike dry weight measured at anthesis and physiologic maturity and also partitioning photoassimilates to the spike during anthesis-physiologic maturity phases increased more in new cultivars than old ones. Increased grain number in new wheat cultivars and the lack of significant changes in 1000-seed weight suggests that seed yields of the cultivars used under the condition tested are controlled more by sink than source strength. Under conditions tested, it seems that increased grain number, either in plant level or in square meter, might be considered as a way to assess increased seed yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain number
  • Grain weight
  • Modern and new cultivar
  • Sink limitation
  • Wheat

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