اثر توأم تنش سرما و خشکی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب برخی از هیبریدهای ذرت (Zea mays L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 پژوهشکده بیوتکنولوژی (ابری) کرج، ایران

چکیده

تنش­های سرما و خشکی، از مهم­ترین عوامل محدود کننده تولید گیـاهان زراعی محسـوب می­شوند. به­منظور بررسی اثر توأم تنش سرما و خشکی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد هیبریدهای ذرت، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های دوبار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1393در گلخانه و مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به اجرا در آمد. در این آزمایش عامل اصلی تنش سرما در دو سطح (عدم تنش سرما و تنش سرما در مرحله چهار برگی)، عامل فرعی شامل سه سطح تنش خشکی (آبیاری معادل 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه، آبیاری معادل 75 درصد نیاز آبی و آبیاری معادل 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه) و عامل فرعی فرعی سه هیبرید ذرت (سینگل­کراس 704، سینگل­کراس 400 و سینگل­کراس 260) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر سطوح تنش خشکی و هیبریدها تفاوت معنی­داری در صفات مورد آزمایش از خود نشان دادند، برهمکنش تنش سرما و خشکی و ارقام مختلف ذرت بر صفات مورد مطالعه (تعداد دانه در بلال، وزن ۱۰۰ دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیکی و شاخص برداشت) معنی­دار بودند. بیشترین عملکرد دانه با میزان 7887 کیلوگرم در هکتار و سینگل­کراس 400 با عملکرد 6862 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تیمار 100 درصـد نیـاز آبی گیاه به­دست آمدند. سینگل­کراس 400 بالاترین میزان بهره­وری آب را که همسو با عملکرد دانه بود و سینگل­کراس 704 بالاترین کارآیی مصرف آب را دارا بودند و کارآیی مصرف آب برای تولید ماده خشک درشرایط محدودیت آبی افزایش یافت. در برهمکنش تنش سرمازدگی و خشکی بالاترین کارآیی مصرف آب به تیمار عدم تنش سرمازدگی با 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه تعلق داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Cold and Drought Stresses on Yield, Yield Components and Water Use Efficiency of some Corn Hybrids (Zea mays L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Tarighaleslami 1
  • Mohammad Kafi 2
  • Ahmad Nezami 2
  • Reza zarghami 3
1 Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Cold and drought stresses are considered as the most important factors limiting crop production. To evaluate the effect of these tow stresses on yield and yield components of corn hybrids, a field experiment was implemented in split plots based on a randomized complete block design in 3 replicates during 2014 at the Research Greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this research, chilling stress in two levels (i.e. non-stress, and cold stress) is considered as the main factor and three levels of drought stress (i.e. irrigation equivalent to 100% of plants water requirement, non-stress as control, irrigation equivalent to 75% of plants water requirement, and irrigation equivalent to 50% of plants water requirement) as sub factor and three hybrid corn (i.e. single-cross 704, single-cross 400, single-cross 260). The results showed that the effects of drought and hybrids on traits under study were significant. Cold and drought stresses interaction of different corn varieties on the traits under study (seed number per ear, 100-seed weight, yield, biological yield and harvest index) was also significant. The highest seed yields of hybrid 704 and hybrid 400 under 100% water requirement were 7887 and 6862 kg.ha-1 respectively. Single-cross 400 variety had the highest water productivity in line with the 704 variety with the highest grain yield and water consumption efficiency, water consumption efficiency for biomass production in water-limited conditions increased. Finally, it shows that cold and drought stress interaction resulted in highest water consumption efficiency in the treatments of non-chilling stress and 100% water requirement.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological yield
  • drought
  • harvest index
  • water use efficiency
  • water requirement

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