پاسخ فیزیولوژیک گیاه رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) به کود دامی و پلیمر سوپرجاذب در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر کود دامی و پلیمر سوپرجاذب بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی رازیانه در شرایط تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1394 در دانشگاه شهرکرد انجام شد. سطوح مختلف تیمار تنش خشکی شامل: سه سطح 50 (شاهد)، 100 و 150 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A به­عنوان فاکتور اصلی و نسبت­های مختلف کود دامی (گاوی) و پلیمر سوپرجاذب در شش سطح شامل: D1: عدم مصرف کود دامی و پلیمر سوپرجاذب، D2: 10 تن در هکتار کود دامی + 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار پلیمر سوپرجاذب، D3: 20 تن در هکتار کود دامی + 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار پلیمر سوپرجاذب، D4: 30 تن در هکتار کود دامی+ 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار پلیمر سوپرجاذب، D5: 40 تن در هکتار کود دامی و D6: 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار پلیمر سوپرجاذب به­عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تنش خشکی و کود دامی و پلیمر سوپرجاذب و اثر متقابل آنها بر محتوای پرولین، کلروفیل b، کارتنوئید، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد اسانس این گیاه تاثیر معنی­داری داشتند. همچنین، بیشترین عملکرد دانه (66/146 گرم بر مترمربع)، عملکرد اسانس (99/2 گرم بر مترمربع) و کارتنوئید از تیمار 50 میلی­متر تبخیر با کاربرد D6 حاصل شد. بیشترین مقدار پرولین از تیمار 150 میلی­متر تبخیر با کاربرد D4 به­دست آمد. بیشترین کلروفیل b از تیمار 50 میلی­متر تبخیر و کاربرد D3 تولید شد. بیشترین محتوای آب نسبی برگ و کلروفیل کل از تیمار 50 میلی­متر تبخیر و D6 و بیشترین کلروفیل a از تیمار 50 میلی­متر و D4 حاصل شد. به­طورکلی، در شرایط 50 میلی‌متر تبخیر و 200 کیلوگرم سوپرجاذب در هکتار حداکثر عملکرد دانه و عملکرد اسانس به­دست آمدند. از طرف دیگر در شرایط 100 میلی متر تبخیر و با کاربرد 40 تن کود دامی در هکتار اثرات سوء تنش خشکی بر صفات عملکرد دانه و عملکرد اسانس کاهش یافت. همچنین، در تیمار 150 میلی متر تبخیر و کاربرد کود دامی و پلیمر سوپرجاذب (به­ترتیب 30 تن و 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار) اثرات تنش خشکی بر صفات عملکرد دانه و عملکرد اسانس نسبت به سایر تیمارها کاهش یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Physiological Response of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) to Manure and Super Absorbent Polymer under Drought Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Rezai
  • Mohammad Rafieolhossaini
Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate theeffect of different ratios of animal manure and super absorbent polymer on some physiological characteristics of fennel under drought stress conditions, an experiment was conducted as spilt-plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2015 at the University of Shahrekord. Different levels of drought stress consisted of three levels of: control (50 mm), 100 mm and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan assigned to the main factor and different ratios of animal manure and super absorbent polymer in six levels including: D1: lack of manure and super absorbent polymer, D2: 10 t.ha-1 manure + 150 kg.ha-1 super absorbent polymer, D3: 20 t.ha-1 manure + 100 kg.ha-1 super absorbent polymer, D4: 30 t.ha-1 manure + 50 kg.ha-1super absorbent polymer, D5: 40 t.ha-1 manure and D6: 200 kg.ha-1 super absorbent polymer to the sub-factor. The results showed that the drought stress and animal manure and super absorbent polymer and their interactions had a significant effect on proline, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid contents, seed and essential oil yields. Also, the highest seed yield (146.66 g.m-2), essential oil yield (2.99 g.m-2) and carotenoid were obtained from control with D6. The highest proline content was obtained from 150 mm with the use of D4. The highest chlorophyll b was obtained from control and D3. The highest relative water content and total chlorophyll were obtained from control and D6, while the highest chlorophyll a was achieved from control and D4 treatment. In general, the highest seed and essential oil yields were obtained from 50 mm evaporation and 200 kg/ha superabsorbent polymer treatments. On the other hand, the effects of drought stress on seed and essential oil yields decreased by application of 40 t/ha manure at 100 mm evaporation conditions. Also, at 150 mm evaporation and use of manure and superabsorbent polymer (30 t.ha-1 and 50 kg/ha, respectively), the effects of drought stress on seed and essential oil yields decreased as compared to the other treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • carotenoids
  • Chlorophyll
  • essential oil yield
  • Leaf relative water content
  • Proline

· Ahmadian, A., A. Ghanbari, and V.M. Galuy. 2009. The interaction effect of water stress and animal manure on yield component, essential oil chemical composition of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 40 (1): 173-180. (In Persian).
· Ahmadian, A., A. Ghanbari, B.A. Syasr, M. Heydari, M. Ramroudi, and S.M. Mousavi Nick. 2010. Residual effects of chemical and animal fertilizers and compost on yield, yield components physiological characteristics and essential oil content of matricaria chamommilla L. under drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research.8 (4): 668-676. (In Persian).
· Amiri, H., GH.A. Imame, and S.F. Abdollahi. 2015. Effect of drought stress on the essential oil content and composition of dill (Anethum graveolens L.). Journal of Plant Processes and Functions. 3 (10): 143-149. (In Persian).
· Dehbashi, S., A.R. Ladanmoghadam, and A. Ghafourian. 2014. The effect of superabsorbent in reducing drought stress on some physiological traits of marigold (Tagetes marigoid). Journal of Plant Environmental Physiology. 3: 72-81. (In Persian).
· Delkhosh, B., A.H. Shyranyerad, G.H. Noormohammadi, and F. Darvish. 2006. Effect of drought stress on grain yield and chlorophyll in rapessed cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2: 359-369. (In Persian).
· Din, J., S.U. Khan, I. Ali, and A.R. Gurmani. 2011. Physiological and agronomic response of canola varieties to drought stress. Journalof Animal and Plant Sciences. 1: 78-82.
· Fazeli Rostampour, M. 2015. Relationship between some growth indexes and tillering of forage sorghum under irrigation regimes and polymer. Journalof Biotechnology Research. 1: 1-7.
· Fazeli Rostampour, M., M. Yarnia, F. Rahimzadeh Khoee, M.J. Seghatoleslami, and G.R. Moosavi. 2013. Physiological response of forage sorghum to polymer under water deficit conditions. Agronomy Journal. 105(4): 951-959.
· Gharibi, Sh., B.A.S. Tabatabai, Gh.A. Saeadi, S.A.H. Goli, and M. Talebi. 2012. Effect of drought stress on some physiological properties and antioxidan activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam. Journal of Herbal Drugs. 3: 181-190. (In Persian).
· Ghorbanli, M., M. Gafarabad, T. Amirkian, and B. Allahverdi. 2013. Investigation of proline, total protein, chlorophyll, ascorbate and dehydroascorbate changes under drought stress in akria and mobil tomato cultivars. Journal of Plant Physiology. 3: 651-658.
· Hati, K.M., K.G. Mandal, A.K.  Misra, P.K. Ghosh, and K.K. Bandyopadhyay. 2006. Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soil physical properties, root distribution, and water use efficiency of soybean in vertisols of central India. Bioresource Technology. 97: 2182–2188.
· Hllen, R.G., L.S. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration (guidelines for computing crop water requirements). FAO Irrigation and Drainage. Paper No. 56 Rome.  pp: 174.
· Kabiri, R., H. Farahbakhsh, and N. Nasib. 2014. Effect of drought stress on physiological and biochemical characteristics of Nigella sativa L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 4: 600-609. (In Persian).
· Keshavars, L., H. Farahbakhsh, and P. Golkar. 2012. The effects of drought stress and super absorbent polymer on morph physiological traits of pear millet (Pennisetum glaucum). International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. 3:148-154.
· Lashkari sayad, F., M. Gloy, and M. Moradi. 2013. Effect of super absorbent polymer, animal manure and potassium on the fluorescence of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, b and total and relative humidity (RWC) of bitter cucumber (Momordica charantia) in different irrigation regimes. The First National Conference of Agricultural Sciences, PNU, Naghadeh, Iran.
· Mona, Y., A.M. Kandil, and M.F. Swaefy Hend. 2008. Effect of three different compost levels on fennel and salvia growth character and their essential oils. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 4: 34-39.
· Moslemi, Z., D. Habibi, A. Asgharzadeh, M.R. Ardakani, A. Mohammadi, and A. Sakari. 2011. Effects of super absorbent polymer and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yield and yield components of maize under drought stress and normal conditions. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 6: 4471-4476.
· Omidbiaigi, R., A. Hassani, and F. Sefidkon. 2003. Essential oil conten and composition of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) at different irrigation regimes. Journal of Essential oil Bearing Plants. 6: 104-108.
· Pirzad, A.R., A. Fayyazmoghaddam, M. Razban, and Y. Raie. 2012. The evaluation of dried flower and essential oil yield and harvest index of (Matricaia chamomilla L.) under varying irrigation regimes and amounts of super absorbent polymer A200. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production. 3: 85-99. (In Persian).
· Pouresmaeel, P., D. Habibi, A. Tavasoli, M. Mashhadi Akbarbojar, B. Roshan, H. Rafiee, and M. Shokravi. 2007. The effect of water super absorbent polymer on increased yield and yield components of red bean varieties under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Knowledge. 4 (3): 305-316. (In Persian).
· Pourmusavi, S.M., M. Glooy, J. Daneshian, A. Ghanbari, and N. Basirani. 2007. Effect of drought stress and manure on leaf relative water content, cell membrane stabillity and leaf chlorophyll content in soybean. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 14 (4): 1-10. (In Persian).
· Pouryousef, M. 2015. Effects of terminal drought stress and harvesting time on seed yield and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 30(6): 889-897. (In Persian).
· Rezai Chiane, A., S. Zehtab Salmasi, K. Ghasemi Golozani, and A. Delazar. 2013.  Physiological reactions of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) to water limtation. Journal of Agroecology. 4: 347-355. (In Persian).
· Sayyari, M., and F. Ghanbari. 2012. Effects of super absorbent polymer A200 on the growth, yield and some physiological responses in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under various irrigation regimes. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research. 1(1): 1-11.
· Setayeshmehr, Z., and A. Ganjali. 2013. Effects of drought stress on growth and physiological characteristics of dill (Anethum graveolens L.). Journal of Horticultural Sciences (Agricultural Industries and Sciences). 27(1): 27-35. (In Persian).
· Seydi, M., H. Safarinya, F. Ghanbari, and M. Sayari. 2014. Evaluation of physiological indices of tomato plant under different irrigation intervals and super absorbent polymer A200. Journal of Crop Production and Processing. 12: 335-346. (In Persian).
· Snyder, R.L., B.J. Lanini, D.A. Shaw, and W.O. Pruitt. 1989. Using reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and crop coefficients to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc) for agronomic crops, Grasses, and vegetable crops. Cooperative Extension, University of California, Berkeley, CA, Leaflet No 21427. PP: 12.
· Taghi Darzi, M. 2012. Effects of organic manure and biofertilizer application on flowering and some yield traits of coriander (Coriandrum sativum). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences. 4: 1.3-107.
· Tohidi Moghaddam, H., and A.H. Mazaheri. 2012. Effect of manuring fertilizer and super absorbent polymers on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of soybean under water deficit stress conditions. Journal of Crop Production Research. 3: 375-398. (In Persian).
Yunesian, A., P. Rezvani Moghaddam, and A. Gholami. 2013. The effect of organic biological and chemical fertilizers application on the quantity and quality of fennel essential oil. Plant Production Technology. 13 (2): 63-72. (In Persian).