ارزیابی برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد دانه گندم در رژیم‌های آبیاری تحت تاثیر محلول‌پاشی سولفات منگنز

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

2 دکترای زراعت ، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد میاندوآب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، میاندوآب، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر محلول‌پاشی سولفات منگنز بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد دانه ارقام هگزاپلوئید (پیشگام و الوند) و تتراپلوئید (چهل‌دانه و ساجی) گندم تحت رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری، آزمایشی به­صورت اسپیلت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز در پاییز سال ۱۳۹۲ اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش عبارتند از رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری در ۳ سطح شامل آبیاری با دور ۷ روز (شاهد)، قطع آبیاری در مرحله طویل شدن ساقه (کد۳۰ مقیاس زادوکس) و قطع آبیاری در مرحله آبستنی (کد ۴۵ مقیاس زادوکس)، فاکتور فرعی کود سولفات منگنز در۳ سطح شامل عدم محلول‌پاشی سولفات منگنز، محلول‌پاشی ۵۰ و ۱۰۰ درصد مقدار توصیه شده پس از تجزیه خاک (با غلظت پنج در هزار) و همچنین فاکتور فرعی فرعی در چهار سطح شامل دو رقم هگزاپلوئید پیشگام و الوند و دو رقم گندم تتراپلوئید چهل‌دانه و ساجی. نتایج نشان داد که رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری تاثیر معنی‌داری بر میزان انتقال ماده خشک از میانگره برگ پرچم، مقدار نسبی آب برگ، طول دوره پر شدن و سرعت پر شدن دانه، مقدار پرولین برگ، کارایی مصرف آب و عملکرد دانه داشتند. قطع آبیاری در هر دو مرحله و همچنین عدم محلول‌پاشی کود سولفات منگنز سبب کاهش عملکرد دانه، سرعت و طول دوره پر شدن دانه گردید. قطع آبیاری در مرحله طویل شدن ساقه گندم مقدار نسبی آب برگ را ۳۳ درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش داد. همچنین، قطع آبیاری منجر به افزایش مقدار پرولین برگ گردید، به­طوری­که قطع آبیاری در مرحله طویل شدن ساقه گندم مقدار پرولین برگ را از 35/5 به 34/8 میکرومول بر گرم وزن تر افزایش داد. در رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری مشخص شد که تیمارهایی که با فواصل ۷ روز آبیاری شده بودند در مقایسه با تیمارهای تحت قطع آبیاری، دوره پر شدن دانه طولانی‌تر (۳۶ روز) داشتند. بیشترین کارایی مصرف آب (0018/0کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب) نیز با حجم کل آب مصرفی 4/2 مترمکعب برای هر کرت فرعی تحت آبیاری با فاصله ۷ روز به ‌دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Foliar Application of Manganese Sulfate on Some Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Wheat under Different Irrigation Regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • farhad farahvash 1
  • Fatemeh Hashemzade 2
  • Farshad Sorkhilalelo 3
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding , Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Miandoab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Miandoab, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effects of spraying manganese sulfate on some physiological characteristics and seed yield of tetraploid and hexaploid varieties of wheat under different irrigation regimes a factorial split plot experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was conducted at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Iran, in the fall of 2013. Irrigation regimes were considered as main factor in three levels, including irrigation at every 7 days (control), cutting off of irrigation at stem elongation (code 30 scale Zadoks) and cutting off of irrigation at booting stage (code 45 scale Zadoks), manganese sulfate fertilizer as sub factor including not spraying, spraying with 50% and 100% concentrations of recommended rate based on soil analysis (with 0.005 concentration) and sub sub factor in four levels, including two levels of each hexaploid (Pishgam and Alvand) and tetraploid (Cheheldaneh and Saji) wheats. The results showed that irrigation regimes significantly affected translocation of dry matter of flag leaf internode, leaf relative water content, duration and rate of seed filling, leaf proline content, water use efficiency and seed yield. Cutting off of irrigation at both stages and also not spraying of manganese sulfate reduced seed yield, rate and duration of seed filling.Cutting off of irrigation at stem elongation stage reduced leaf relative water content (by 33%) as compared to control treatment. Also, cutting off of irrigation increased praline content of leaf, cutting off of irrigation at stem elongation stage increased amount of leaf proline content from 5.35 to 8.34 micro moles per gram. Irrigation at 7 day intervals increased seed filling duration in comparison of cutting irrigation, by 36 days. The highest water use efficiency (0.0018 kg/m3) with total volume water use (2.4 m3) was achieved with the irrigation at 7 day intervals. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Irrigation
  • Manganese sulfate
  • Wheat
  • spray

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