واکنش ارقام گندم‌نان نسبت به مصرف کود نیتروژنه درتیمارهای مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان‌غربی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی اثرات تنش کمبود آب و زمان­بندی مصرف کود نیتروژنه بر عملکرد دانه و اجزای آن در ارقام گندم‌نان، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های دو بار خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتورهای مورد آزمایش شامل سطوح مختلف آبیاری (آبیاری کامل، قطع آبیاری در مراحل ظهور سنبله و گلدهی) در کرت­های اصلی، زمان و نحوه مصرف کود اوره (F1- 20 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌ترتیب در مراحل کاشت و پنجه­دهی، F2- 20 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌ترتیب در مراحل کاشت و ظهور ساقه، F3- 20 ، 50 و 50کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌ترتیب در مراحل کاشت، پنجه­دهی و ظهور ساقه، F4- 20 ، 50 و 50کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌ترتیب در مراحل کاشت، پنجه­دهی و ظهور سنبله) در کرت­های فرعی و ارقام گندم نان شامل زرین، پیشگام، اروم، زارع و میهن در کرت­های فرعی فرعی قرار گرفتند. متوسط عملکرد رقم­ها تحت آبیاری کامل 5/7 تن در هکتار بود که به 5/6 تن در هکتار در شرایط قطع آبیاری کاهش یافت. بیشترین میانگین عملکرد دانه متعلق به رقم میهن با 1/8 تن در هکتار و کمترین آن متعلق به رقم زرین با 7/5 تن در هکتار بود. در شرایط آبیاری کامل، بیشترین عملکرد دانه با 4/9 تن در هکتار متعلق به رقم میهن تحت تیمار کوددهی F4 به دست آمد. تحت شرایط تنش‌رطوبتی در مرحله گلدهی و سنبله‌دهی رقم میهن به‌ترتیب با 6/8 و 3/8 تن در هکتار در تیمارهای F3 و F4 دارای حداکثر عملکرد دانه بود. در شرایط قطع آبیاری در مرحله ظهور سنبله ارقام پیشگام، زارع و میهن واکنش بهتری به تیمارهای کوددهی F2، F3 و F4 در مقایسه با تیمار کوددهی F1 نشان دادند. براساس شاخص­های تحمل به خشکیHARM،STI ،MP وGMP ارقام میهن و پیشگام به‌عنوان ارقامی با عملکرد بالا در هر دو محیط تنش و بدون تنش شناسایی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of Bread Wheat Varieties to Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer under Different Irrigation Treatments

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parisa Ghahremani 1
  • Soleyman Mohammadi 2
  • Hashem Hadi 1
1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

The assessment of water deficit stress and timing of nitrogen fertilizer application effects on seed yield and its components in bread wheat cultivars were carried out in a an split split plot experiment based on RCB design with three replications was carried out. Experimental factors consisted of different levels of irrigation (full irrigation, stopping irrigation at heading and anthesis stages) that were assigned to main plots, and four levels of nitrogen fertilizer applications (F1: 20 and100 kg/ha at sowing and tillering stages respectively, F2: 20 and 100 kg/ha at sowing and booting stages respectively, F3: 20, 50 and 50 kg/ha at sowing , tillering and booting stages respectively, F4: 20 , 50 and 50 kg/ha in sowing, tillering and heading stages, respectively) to sub plots and five bread wheat cultivars (Zarrin, Pishgam, Urum, Zare and Mihan) to the sub sub plots. The results showed that mean yield of cultivars was 7.5 t/ha and it was decreased to 6.5 t/ha at stopping irrigation. The highest and lowest yield belonged to Mihan (8.1 t/ha) and Zarrin (5.7 t/ha) cultivars, respectively. Highest yield belonged to Mihan cultivar (9.4 t/ha) under full irrigation and F4 fertilizing treatments. Under deficit water stress condition at heading and flowering stages, the Mihan cultivar produced the highest yield with 8.3 and 8.6 t/ha at F3 and F4 treatments, respectively. Pishgam, Zare and Mihan cultivars responded properly to F2, F3 and F4 fertilizing treatments when irrigation stopped at heading stage, in comparison with F1 fertilizing treatment. Based on drought tolerance indices, Mihan and Pishgam identified as high performance cultivars under both stress and non-stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bread Wheat
  • Irrigation treatments
  • Nitrogen Fertilizer
  • Seed yield
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