بهبود خصوصیات زراعی و کیفی ژنوتیپ های گندم دوروم (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) با کاربرد سولفات روی در شرایط تنش کمبود روی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

2 باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد زنجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، زنجان ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثرات کاربرد خارجی عنصر روی بر عملکرد دانه و برخی از ویژگی‌های کیفی آن در خاک آهکی، آزمایشی گلدانی در سال زراعی 1393 به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مراغه اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل 4 ژنوتیپ گندم دوروم و 2 سطح کاربرد خارجی سولفات روی (شاهد و کاربرد خاکی به همراه اسپری برگی در مراحل ساقه‌روی + آغاز پرشدن دانه) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد خارجی روی توانست میزان عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه ژنوتیپ RCOL را به‌ترتیب در حدود 2 و 4 برابر در مقایسه با شاهد افزایش داد درحالی‌که در سایر ژنوتیپ­های مورد مطالعه کاربرد عنصر روی بر عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه تأثیر معنی‌داری نداشت. بر اساس نتایج به­دست آمده، بیشترین افزایش وزن هزار دانه در اثر کاربرد عنصر روی به میزان 7/20 درصد در ژنوتیپ RCOL صورت گرفت. در بین ژنوتیپ‌ها بیشترین میزان کاهش نسبت مولی اسید فیتیک به روی در ژنوتیپ Ege-88 مشاهده شد و این نسبت از 2/52 در شاهد به 4/8 در شرایط کاربرد روی رسید که این امر نشانگر واکنش متفاوت ژنوتیپ­های گندم دوروم به شرایط محیطی از جمله کمبود روی در خاک است. نتایج حاصل همچنین نشان داد که کاربرد خارجی سولفات روی سبب افزایش 7/22 درصدی تعداد دانه در سنبله و کاهش 3/62 درصدی میزان اسید فیتیک شد. همچنین با کاربرد سولفات روی غلظت روی دانه از 9/29 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم در شرایط شاهد به 7/64 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم رسید. به‌طور کلی اگرچه کاربرد خارجی عنصر روی منجر به افزایش عملکرد همه ژنوتیپ‌های مورد مطالعه نشد اما با تأثیر بر پارامترهای مورد مطالعه میزان کیفی عملکرد را بهبود داد. لذا، اگرچه برای اطمینان از نتایج حاصل انجام آزمایشات دیگری لازم است ولی، می‌توان استفاده از کاربرد خارجی روی را روش مناسبی برای بهبود همزمان عملکرد کمی و کیفی دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improvement of Agronomic and Qualitative Characters of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) Genotypes by Application of Zinc Sulfate under Zinc Deficiency Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ezatollah Esfandiari 1
  • Majid Abdoli 2
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
2 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effects of Zn application on seed yield and some qualitative properties of wheat in a calcareous soil an experiment was carried out in factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Iran, during 2014 growing season. The first factor consisted of four durum wheat genotypes and the second factor of levels two zinc sulfate application (control and foliar application of Zn on soil at stem elongation + seed filling stages). The results showed that application of zinc sulfate could increase biological and seed yields of RCOL genotype by 2 and 4 times compared to control respectively. The effects application of zinc sulfate on biological and seed yields of other genotypes were not significant. Based on the results obtained from this study the highest increase in seed weight was 20.7% in the RCOL genotype by Zn application. The highest reduction in phytic acid to zinc molar ratio was observed in Ege-88 genotype and this ratio was decreased by 52.2 percent in the control to 8.4% due to Zn application. This may indicate different responses of durum wheat genotypes to the zinc deficiency in the soil. The results also showed that the number of seed per spike was increased by 22.7 percent and phytic acid was decreased by 62.3 percent due to the application of zinc sulfate. Also, application of zinc sulfate increased Zn concentration in seed from 29.9 mg.kg-1 to 64.7 mg.kg-1 in control. In general, however, the application of zinc was not the reason of seed yield improvement of all genotypes studied but it improved seed yield qualities. It can be concluded that use of Zn is an appropriate method to improve the qualitative and quantitative traits of seed yield. To confirm these results other studies are needed.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofortification
  • grain protein
  • Phytic acid
  • Wheat
  • Zinc deficient

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