عکس العمل گشنیز (Coriandrum sativum L.) در تراکم های مختلف بوته به مصرف کود نیتروژن

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بیرجند

چکیده

مصرف مقادیر مناسب کود نیتروژن و تراکم بوته از عوامل مهم مؤثر بر رشد و عملکرد گیاهان دارویی می­باشند. با هدف بررسی اثر نیتروژن و تراکم بوته بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گشنیز آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در سال 1392 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی بیرجند انجام گردید. در این تحقیق مقادیر نیتـروژن در چهار سطح (صفر، 40، 80 و120 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار) به­عنـوان فاکتـور اصلی و تراکم در سه سطح (30، 40 و50 بوته در متر مربع) به­عنوان فاکتور فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تاثیر مقدار نیتروژن بر تعداد چتر در بوته و متر مربع، تعداد میوه در چتر، عملکرد میوه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، وزن میوه تک بوته، بیوماس تک بوته و درصد و عملکرد اسانس معنی­دار بود. همچنین، تغییر در تراکم بوته به جز صفات تعداد میوه در چتر، وزن هزار میوه و درصد اسانس بر سایر صفات مورد مطالعه تاثیر معنی داری داشت. اثر متقابل نیتروژن و تراکم نیز بر همه صفات به جز تعداد چتر در بوته، تعداد میوه در چتر و درصد و عملکرد اسانس معنی­دار بود. با افزایش مصرف نیتروژن از صفر به 80 کیلوگرم در هکتار تعداد چتر در متر مربع، عملکردهای میـوه، بیـولوژیک و اسـانس به­ترتیب سبب 5/62، 1/74، 3/74 و 8/186 درصد افزایش یافتند. همچنین، افزایش تراکم از 30 به 50 بوته به­ترتیب افزایش 6/25، 4/31، 8/21 و 4/37 درصدی این صفات شد. به­طورکلی، بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق مصرف 80 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و تراکم 50 بوته در متر مربع، بیشترین عملکردهای میوه و اسانس گشنیز در منطقه بیرجند را به خود اختصاص دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Response of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) in Different Plant Densities to the Using of Nitrogen Fertilizer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Ebrahimi 1
  • Seyyed Gholamreza Moosavi 2
  • Mohamad Javad Seghatoleslami 1
1 Department of Agronomy and Crop Breeding, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
2 Faculty member of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch, Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

Application of proper rates of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density are important factors for medicinal plants yield. To study the effect of nitrogen rates and plant densities on yield and yield components of coriander, an experiment was carried out in split-plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Field of Islamic Azad University of Birjand, Iran, in 2013. The main plots were nitrogen rates with four levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N per ha) and the sub-plots with three levels (30, 40 and 50 plants per m2). The results showed that nitrogen rate had significant effect on number of umbel per plant and per m2, fruit number per umbel, fruit yield, biological yield, fruit weight of single plant, biomass yield of single plant and percent and yield of essential oil. Changes in plant density, also had significant effect on all traits except fruit number per umbel, 1000-fruit weight and percent of essential oil. Moreover, interaction effect between nitrogen rate and plant density affected all traits except umbel number per plant, fruit number per umbel and percent and yield of essential oil. Mean comparisons showed that as N fertilization rate increased from 0 to 80 kg N ha-1, umbel number per m2, fruit yield, biological yield and essential oil yield increased by 62.5, 74.1, 74.3 and 186.8%, respectively. Results also revealed that increasing plant density from 30 to 50 plants per m2, increased these traits by 25.6, 31.4, 21.8 and 37.4%, respectively. The conclusion is that application of 80 kg N ha-1 and use of 50 plants/m2 produced highest fruit and essential oil yield for coriander in Birjand region

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Coriander
  • Essential Oil
  • Medicinal Plants
  • nitrogen
  • Plant density

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