ارزیابی سیستم‎های مختلف کشت بر میزان غلظت عنصر کادمیوم در مراحل رشدی گندم

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه خاک شناسی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

3 گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

آلوده شدن خاک با فلزات سنگین موجب تجمع این عناصر در بافت‎های گیاهی و کاهش کمّی و کیفی محصولات کشاورزی شده و به این ترتیب سلامت انسان و دام را به خطر می­اندازد. بقایای محصول قبلی و میزان مصرف کود‎های شیمیایی مصرفی (خصوصاً کود‎های فسفاته) از مهم­ترین عوامل تاثیرگذار بر تجمع کادمیوم در بافت‎های گیاهان می‎باشد. تناوب کشت عامل مهم و تاثیرگذار دیگری بر قابلیت حل شدگی کادمیوم در خاک می­باشد. این تحقیق با هدف ارزیابی اثرات سیستم‎های کشت و مراحل مختلف رشد بر غلظت کادمیوم گیاه زراعی گندم بر اساس آزمایش کرت‎های یک بار خرد شده در زمان و در قالب طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار طی سال زراعی 94-93 در ایستگاه مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی شاوور (استان خوزستان) اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل دو سیستم کشت (برنج-گندم، آیش-گندم) و فاکتور فرعی در برگیرنده مراحل رشد (پنجه­دهی، گلدهی و رسیدگی) بودند. تفاوت غلظت کادمیوم دانه گندم دو سیستم کشت طبق آزمون T (T-Test) در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‎دار شد و غلظت کادمیوم دانه در سیستم کشت برنج-گندم با میانگین 31/0 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم بیشتر از سیستم کشت آیش-گندم (27/0 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم) بود که بیشتر از حد استاندارد سازمان بهداشت جهانی است. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد اثر سیستم‎های کشت و مراحل مختلف رشد و نمو بر صفات غلظت کادمیوم ریشه و ساقه در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار بود. تجمع مقدار کادمیوم ریشه به میزان 09/1 میلی‎گرم بر کیلوگرم و ساقه به میزان 73/0 میلی‎گرم بر کیلـوگرم در سیستم کشت برنج-گندم در مقایسه با سیستم کشت آیش-گندم بیشتر بود. غلظت­های کادمیوم تجمع یافته در ساقه یا در ریشه طی مراحل مختلف رشد گندم تفاوت معنی‎داری نداشتند اما در کل از روند افزایشی دارا بودند. به نظر می‎رسد این امر به دلیل عدم تغییر پذیری غلظت کادمیوم در بازه زمانی کاشت تا برداشت گندم است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Various Cropping Systems on Cd Concentrations of Different Growth Stages of Wheat

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khoshnaz Payandeh 1
  • Alireza Jafarnejadi 2
  • Ali Gholami 1
  • Alireza Shokohfar 3
  • Ebrahim Panahpor 1
1 Department of Soil Science, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Soil and Water Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil contamination with heavy metals would accumulate these elements in plant tissues and decrease qualitaty and quantity of agricultural producs and thus endanger human and animal healths. Previous crop residues and rates of fertilizers applications (especially phosphorus fertilizer) are the most important effective factors on accumulation of cadmium in crop tissues. Another influential factor affecting soil shrinkage is crop rotation which induces the solubility of cadmium. This research was aimed to assess the effects of conventional cropping system on cadmium concentrations in wheat at its different growth stages by using a split plot in time experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications in the 2014-2015 growing season in Shavoor Agricultural Research Station (Khuzestan province). Main plot consisted of cropping system (rice-wheat, fallow-wheat) and sub plot of growth stages at three levels (tillering, flowering and ripening). Different wheat seed cadmium concentrations due to two cropping systems were different significantly at 1% probability level. Cadmium concentration in the seeds at rice-wheat cropping system (0.31 mg.kg-1) was higher than fallow-wheat system (0.27 mg.kg-1) which is higher than World Health Organization standards. Result of analysis of variance showed that the effect of cropping systems and different growth stages of wheat on root and stem cadmium concentrations were significant at 1% probability level. Rice-wheat cropping system resulted in higher cadmium concentration in root (1.09 mg.kg-1) and stem (0.73 mg.kg-1) compared to that of the fallow-wheat cropping system. Accumulation of cadmium in stem or root at different growth stages of wheat were not significant but it was totally additive, because range of variation of cadmium concentration from planting to harvest was low.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cadmium concentration
  • Rotation
  • Seed
  • Wheat
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