عنوان مقاله [English]
Soil contamination with heavy metals would accumulate these elements in plant tissues and decrease qualitaty and quantity of agricultural producs and thus endanger human and animal healths. Previous crop residues and rates of fertilizers applications (especially phosphorus fertilizer) are the most important effective factors on accumulation of cadmium in crop tissues. Another influential factor affecting soil shrinkage is crop rotation which induces the solubility of cadmium. This research was aimed to assess the effects of conventional cropping system on cadmium concentrations in wheat at its different growth stages by using a split plot in time experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications in the 2014-2015 growing season in Shavoor Agricultural Research Station (Khuzestan province). Main plot consisted of cropping system (rice-wheat, fallow-wheat) and sub plot of growth stages at three levels (tillering, flowering and ripening). Different wheat seed cadmium concentrations due to two cropping systems were different significantly at 1% probability level. Cadmium concentration in the seeds at rice-wheat cropping system (0.31 mg.kg-1) was higher than fallow-wheat system (0.27 mg.kg-1) which is higher than World Health Organization standards. Result of analysis of variance showed that the effect of cropping systems and different growth stages of wheat on root and stem cadmium concentrations were significant at 1% probability level. Rice-wheat cropping system resulted in higher cadmium concentration in root (1.09 mg.kg-1) and stem (0.73 mg.kg-1) compared to that of the fallow-wheat cropping system. Accumulation of cadmium in stem or root at different growth stages of wheat were not significant but it was totally additive, because range of variation of cadmium concentration from planting to harvest was low.
· Anonymous. 2017. Guidelines for drinking-water quality: Fourth edition incorporating the first addendum. World Health Organization (WHO) Publication. Pp: 631. ISBN: 978-92-4-154995-0.
· Anonymous. 2012. Cadmium dietary exposure in the European population. European Food Safety Authority Journal. 10(1): 1-37.
· Arduini, I., A. Masoni, M. Mariotti, S. Pampana, and L. Ercoli. 2014. Cadmium uptake and translocation in durum wheat varieties differing in grain-Cd accumulation. Journal of Plant and Soil Environment. 60(1): 43–49.
· Bahmani, R., M.R. Bihamta, D. Habibi, P. Forozes, and S. Ahmadvand. 2012. Effect of cadmium chloride on growth parameters of different bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science. 7(1): 152-160.
· Baqori, A., and H. Rahmani. 2007. Evaluation long time effect of phousphorus fertilizer on soil and plant cadmium concentration at Bran region of Isfahan. 10th congress of Iran soil science. September. Karaj. Iran. (In Persian).
· Bhardwaj, P., A.K. Chaturved, and P. Prasad. 2009. Effect of enhanced lead and cadmium in soil on physiological and biochemical attributes of Phaselous vulgaris L. Journal of Nature and Science. 7(8): 63-75.
· Chan, D.Y., and B.A. Hale. 2004. Differential accumulation of Cd in durum wheat cultivars: Uptake and retranslocation as sources of variation. Journal of Experimental Botany. 55: 2571–2579.
· Daryaee, F., B. Keramat, and M.J. Arvin. 2014. Effect of selenium spraying on physiological and morphological traits of wheat variety (Kavir and Roshan) under cadmium stress. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 3(10): 112-131. (In Persian).
· Garcia-Esquinas, E., A. Navas-Acien, B. Perez Gomez, and F. Rodriguez Artalejo. 2015. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults. Journal of Environmental Research. 137: 424-431.
· Grant, C.A., and S.C. Sheppard. 2008. Fertilizer impacts on cadmium availability in agricultural soils and crops. Journal of Human, Ecology and Risk Assessment. 14: 210-228.
· Gray, C.W., R.G. McLaren, and A.H.C. Roberts. 2001. Cadmium concentrations in some New Zealand wheat grain. Journal of Crop Horticulture Science. 29: 125-136.
· Greger, M., and M. Lofstedt. 2004. Comparison of uptake and distribution of cadmium in different cultivars of bread and durum wheat. Journal of Crop Science. 44: 501–507.
· Greger, M., and T. Landberg. 2008. Role of rhizosphere mechanisms in Cd uptake by various wheat cultivars. Journal of Plant and Soil. 312: 195–205.
· Jafarnejadi, A.R. 2010. Modeling trend of cadmium accumulation in soil of wheat field. Ph.D. thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. Tarbiat Modares University. 120 pp. (In Persian).
· Karami, K., Y. Rezaee, M. Afyoni, and H. Shariatmadari. 2007. Accumulation effect and residual sludge on concentration cadmium and lead in soil and plant wheat field. Science and Methode of Agriculture and Natural Resource Journal. 11(1): 225-235. (In Persian).
· Karimi, F., and A. Bahmanyar. 2013. Residual effect of compost on concentration of cadmium in soil and plant of rice field. Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production. 3(1): 199-213. (In Persian).
· Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H., and R.L. Chaney. 2007. Preceding crop affects grain cadmium and zinc of wheat grown in saline soils of central Iran. Journal of Environmental Quality. 36: 1132-1136.
· Kirkham, M.B. 2006. Cadmium in plants on polluted soils: Effects of soil factors, hyperaccumulation, and amendments. Journal of Geoderma. 137: 19-32.
· Kubo, K., Y. Watanabe, A. Oyanagi, S. Kaneko, M. Chono, H. Matsunaka, M. Seki, and M. Fujita. 2008. Cadmium concentration in grains of Japanese wheat cultivars: Genotypic difference and relationship with agronomic characteristics. Journal of Plant Production Science. 11: 243–249.
· Li, X., N. Ziadi, G. Belanger, Z. Cai, and H. Xu. 2011. Cadmium accumulation in wheat grain as affected by mineral N fertilizer and soil characteristics. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 91(4): 521-531.
· Malakoti, M.J., A. Baybordi, and S.J. Tabatabaee. 2004. Optimum use of fertilizer to improve quality and reduced pollutant in vegetable production. Iran Agriculture Ministry. 338 pp. (In Persian).
· Masoni A., L. Ercoli, L. Lulli, and I. Arduini. 2005. Variety effect on grain-Cd accumulation in durum wheat. In: Giuliani M.M., Gatta G. (eds.): Proceedings of XXXVI Meeting of the Italian Society of Agronomy, 20–22 September, OLOCAP, Foggia. 336–337.
· Mitchell, L.G., C.A. Grant, and G.J. Racz. 2000. Effect of nitrogen application on concentration of cadmium and nutrient ions in soil solution and in durum wheat. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 80: 107-115.
· Rodda, M.S., G. Li, and R.J. Reid. 2011. The timing of grain Cd accumulation in rice plants: The relative importance of remobilization within the plant and root Cd uptake post-flowering. Journal of Plant and Soil. 347: 105–114.
· Saadat, K., M. Barani Motlagh, E. Dordipour, and A. Ghasemnezhad. 2012. Influence of sewage sludge on some soil properties, yield and concentration of lead and cadmium in roots and shoots of Maize. Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production. 2(2): 27-48. (In Persian).
· Singh, B.R., S.K. Gupta, H. Azaizeh, S. Shilev, D. Sudre, W.Y. Song, E. Martinoia, and M. Mench. 2011. Safety of food crops on land contaminated with trace elements. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture. 91: 1349–1366.
· Sohrabi Yourtchi, M., and H.R. Bayat. 2013. Effect of cadmium toxicity on growth, cadmium accumulation and macronutrient content of durum wheat. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences. 6(15): 1099-1103.
· Soltanpour, P.N. 1991. Determination of nutrient availability and element toxicity by AB-DTPA soil test and ICPS. Journal of Advance, Soil Science. 16: 165-190.
· Thawornchaisit, U., and C. Polprasert. 2009. Evaluation phosphate fertilizers for stabilization of cadmium in highly contaminated soils. Journal of Hazard Material. 165: 1109-1113.
· Toth, G., T. Hermann, M.R. Da Silva, and L. Montanarella. 2016. Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the European union with implications for food safety. International Journal of Environment. 88: 299-309.
· Valinegajad, M., M.J. Malakoti, M.H. Davodi, N. Saadati, N. Saadati, M.R. Ramezanpor, M. Mahmodi, and M. Mohamadian. 2010. Determination critical limit of zinc and evaluation rice reaction to zinc sulphate in rice field. Special letter about optimium use of fertilizer. Journal of Soil and Water Institute. 14: 63-71. (In Persian).
· Valizadeh, F., A. Rayhani tabar, N.A. Najafi, and Sh. Avestan. 2012. Effect of dual use cadmium and zinc on growth characteristics of rice. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research. 3(43): 195-205. (In Persian).
· Vergine, M., A. Aprile, E. Sabella, A. Genga, M. Siciliano, P. Rampino, M. Salvatore Lenucci, A. Luvisi, and L. De Bellis. 2017. Cadmium Concentration in Grains of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 65(30): 6240–6246.
· Veselov, D., G. Kudoyarova, M. Symonyan, and S. Veselov. 2003. Effect of cadmium on ion uptake, transpiration and cytokinin content in wheat seedlings. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology. Special Issue. 353-359.
Yildiz, N. 2005. Response of tomato and corn to increasing Cd in nutrient culture. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 37(3): 593-599.