نقش دفعات وجین بر میزان کاهش مصرف علف‌کش در چغندرقند

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ،سبزوار، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سبزوار، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر دفعات وجین بر میزان کاهش مصرف علف‌کش در محصول چغندرقند، یک آزمایش مزرعه­­ای در سال زراعی 91-90 به­صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در شهرستان جویندر خراسان رضوی اجرا گردید. فاکتور اصلی غلظت مصرفی علف­کش (غلظت‌های صفر، 25، 50، 75 و 100 درصد مقدار توصیه شده علف‌کش کلریدازون (پیرامین) به مقدار 25/3 کیلوگرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار) و فاکتور فرعی دفعات وجین (بدون وجین، یک‌بار وجین و دو بار وجین در 30 و 60 روز بعد از سبز شدن) بودند. صفات تراکم و وزن خشک علف‌های هرز، عملکرد ریشه، درصد قند ناخالص (عیار قند)، درصد قند خالص، عملکرد قند، ضریب قلیائیت (آلکالیته)، میزان سدیم، پتاسیم، نیتروژن مضرِ و درصد قند ملاس مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتـایج آزمایش نشـان داد که افزایش دفعـات وجین سبب کاهش تراکم علف­های هرز، وزن خشک علف­های هرز، نیتروژن مضرِه و افزایش درصد قند خالص، عملکرد ریشه و عملکرد قند شد. کمترین تراکم و وزن خشک علف­های هرز در دُز توصیه‌شده علف‌کش مشاهده گردید. افزایش دُز مصرفی علف‌کش در مقایسه با عدم مصرف سبب افزایش 48/14% عیار چغندرقند، 86/57% نیتروژن مضره، 30/19% قند خالص، 67/77% عملکرد ریشه و 17/111% عملکرد قند و کاهش 77/18% میزان پتاسیم 84/28% میزان سدیم، 76/52% و ضریب قلیایت شد. برای کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه، به جز تراکم علف­هرز، اختلاف آماری معنی‌داری بین دُز توصیه شده و 75% دُز توصیه شده مشاهده نشد. در مجموع نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که در شرایط یک‌بار وجین امکان کاهش 25% غلظتمصرفی و در شرایط دو بار وجین امکان کاهش 50% دُز مصرفی علف‌کش پیرامین با تولید عملکرد اقتصادی (عملکرد ریشه) مطلوب ممکن است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Hand Weeding Times on the Reduce of Herbicide Application in Sugar beet

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Nowbakht Alizadeh Sabzevari 1
  • Mohammad Armin 2
  • Matin Jami moeini 2
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran
چکیده [English]

The effect of times of weeding on reducing herbicide dose in sugar beet was studied in 2011-2012 in Jovein. The experiment was conducted in split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factor was herbicide doses (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose (Chloridazon 3.25 kg. a.i. ha-1 soil applied) and sub plot was times of hand weeding (0, one time hand hoeing, tow times hand hoeing, at 30 and 60 days after plant emergence). Traits like root yield and white sugar yields, impure sugar content, alkalinity coefficient, sodium, potassium, α-amino nitrogen and sugar content in molasses were evaluated. The result showed that the increased frequency of weeding reduced weed density, weed dry weight, α-amino nitrogen and percentage of impure and pure sugar contents, root yield and sugar yield. The least weed density and biomass of weeds were observed in recommended dose. Increasing the doses of herbicide increased impure sugar content (14.48%), α-amino nitrogen (57.86%), pure sugar (19.30%), root yield (77.67%) and sugar yield (111.17%) while it decreased potassium (18.77%), sodium (28.84%) contents and alkalinity coefficient (52.76%) as compared with that of control. For most of the traits, there were not statistically significant difference between the recommended dose and 75% of the recommended dose. Increasing the number of hand weedings reduced herbicide dosages. The, results finally showed that 25% dose reduction of herbicide in one time weeding and 50% dose reduction of it in twice weedings might produce desirable economic yield (root yield).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alkalinity
  • Dose
  • Herbicides
  • Potassium
  • root yield
  • Weeds

· Abdollahi, F., and H. Ghadiri. 2004. Effect of separate and combined applications of herbicides on weed control and yield of sugar beet. Weed Technology. 18: 968-976.
· Anabesatani, V., and M. Armin. 2016. Possibility of reducingherbicide doseof phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate based on application time in sugar beet production. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 10: 823-838.(In Persian).
· Bandegi, M.R., and M. Armin. 2014. Effect of weed interference with sugar beet under different management system. Plant Echophysiology. 19:45-57. (In Persian).
· Cioni, F., and G. Maines. 2010. Weed control in sugarbeet. Sugar Technology. 12: 243-255.
· Daneshian, J., Z. Najari, and F.L. Mavi. 2013. Investigating of integrated weed management on Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) yield in Miandoab.  Iranian Journal of Weed Science. 8: 41-53. (In Persian).
· Draycott, A. P. 2008.Sugar beet. John Wiley & Sons.
· Ganbari Birgani, D., M. Hosseinpour, P. Shimi, and M.A. Noghabi. 2007. Integrated weed control of sugar beet in Dezful and Boroujerd. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 8: 283-299. (In Persian).
· Ghanbari Birgani, D., H. Sharifi, and M. Mazaheri. 2000. Investigating Betanal Progress AM for the control of broad leaf weeds in sugar beet. Final research report. Saffiabad Agricultural Research Station, Khuzestan, Iran. (In Persian).
· Harker, K. N., and J.T. O'Donovan. 2013. Recent weed control, weed management, and integrated weed management. Weed Techology. 27: 1-11.
· Jahad-Akbar, M.R., R. Tabatabaii-NimAvard, and H.R. Ebrahimiyan. 2004. Critical period of weed competition with sugar beet in Kabotarabad-Esfahan. Sugar beet. 20: 73-92. (In Persian).
· Jahedi, A., A. Norouzi, and M. Saati. 2005. Reduce herbicide use by combined application of cultivator and band spraying in sugar beet. Sugar Beet. 21: 77-86. (In Persian).
· Kaya, R. 2012. Possibilities of reducing herbicide use in weed control in sugar beet production. Anadolu Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 27: 133-139.
· Kaya, R. and Ş. Buzluk. 2006. Integrated weed control in sugar beet through combinations of tractor hoeing and reduced dosages of a herbicide mixture. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 30:137-144.
· Koocheki, A., M. Nassiri, A. Siahmarguee, J. Gherekhloo, M. Rastgoo, and A. Ghaemi. 2008. Effect of different integrated weed management methods on weed density and yield of sugar beet crop. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 6: 383-394. (In Persian).
· Maleki, G.R., E. Zand, and S.M.J. Mirhadi. 2008. Using integrated inter-row cultivation and herbicide band application in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) weed management for reducing herbicide use. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 6: 443-452. (In Persian).
· Marwitz, A., E. Ladewig, and B. Märländer. 2012. Impact of herbicide application intensity in relation to environment and tillage on earthworm population in sugar beet in Germany. European Journal of Agronomy. 39: 25-34.
· Melander, B., I.A. Rasmussen, and P. Bàrberi. 2005. Integrating physical and cultural methods of weed control-examples from European research. Weed Science. 53:369-381.
· Mesbah, A., S.D. Miller, K.J. Fornstrom, and D.E. Legg. 1994. Sugar beet-weed interactions. Agricultural ExperimentStation Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Wyoming.
· Odero, D.C., A.O. Mesbah, and S.D. Miller. 2008. Economics of weed management systems in sugarbeet. Journal of Sugar Beet Research. 45(1/2): 49-63.
· Petersen, J. 2003. A review on weed control in sugarbeet. In: Inderjit (ed.): Weed Biology and Management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 467–483.
· Rice, C.A., A. Mesbah, and S.D. Miller. 2001. Economic evaluation of weed management systems in sugarbeets. Proceedings of the American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists. 31: 64-74.
· Siahmarguee, A., A.R. Koocheki, and M. Nassiri Mahallati. 2009. Effect of different integrated weed management methods on weed characteristics and yield of sugar beet. Electronic Journal of Crop Prodction. 3:49-71. (In Persian).
Wiltshire, J.J.J., N.D. Tillett, and T. Hague. 2003. Agronomic evaluation of precise mechanical hoeing and chemical weed control in sugar beet.  Weed Research.  43(4): 236-244.
Yousefabadi, V.A. and D. Mazaheri. 2000. The effect of nitrogen split and time of consumption on some quality characteristics in sugar root production. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 2: 1-9. (In Persian).
· Zafari, M., M. Nasirpour, V. Miralavi, and A.R. Jahani. 2015. Study on efficiency of integrated weed management in sugar beet using mulch and herbicide. Sugar beet. 31: 177-187. (In Persian).
· Zargar, M., H. Najafi, E. Zand, and F. Mighani. 2012. Evaluation of the effect of chemical and non-chemical weed management methods toward reducing herbicide application rate in sugar beet. Journal of Plant Protection. 25: 368-377.