واکنش برخی شاخص‌های رشد و عملکرد شنبلیله (.Trigonella foenum-graecum L) به زئولیت و کود نیتروژن در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثرات تنش کم‌آبی، کود نیتروژن و زئولیت بر شاخص‌های رشد و عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه شنبلیله آزمایشی به­صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال‌های 1393 و 1394 در مزرعه دانشگاه تربیت مدرس اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل پنج رژیم آبیاری (بدون تنش؛ تنش خفیف در مراحل رویشی و زایشی؛ تنش شدید در مراحل رویشی و زایشی) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و ترکیب فاکتوریلی از سه تیمار کودی بر اساس نیتروژن مورد نیاز گیاه (شاهد، ورمی‌کمپوست به میزان 7/2 تن در هکتار و اوره به میزان 11 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و دو مقدار زئولیت (صفر و نه تن در هکتار) به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. در هر دو سال با افزایش شدت تنش کم‌آبی شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد محصول، ارتفاع گیاه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه شنبلیله کاهش یافتند به‌گونه‌ای‌که تیمار تنش شدید کم‌آبی در مرحله زایشی بدون کود و زئولیت (با کمترین مقدار عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه) در مقایسه با شاهد، به‌ترتیب در هر دو سال، کاهش 96/60 و 09/48 درصدی در عملکرد بیولوژیک و 18/80 و 62/75 درصدی در عملکرد دانه را نشان داد. با کاربرد کود نیتروژن، خصوصاً ورمی‌کمپوست، میزان شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد گیاه در مراحل مختلف رشدی و به‌تبع آن عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه شنبلیله، در رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری افزایش یافتند. در رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری تیمارهایی که ورمی‌کمپوست و یا زئولیت در آنها به‌کار رفته بودند توانستند شاخص سطح برگ و سرعت رشد بالاتری داشته باشند و در نهایت عملکرد بیشتری تولید نمایند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Deficit Water Stress on Some Growth Indices and Yield of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in Response to the Zeolite and Nitrogen Fertilizer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Baghbani Arani 1
  • Seyyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy 2
  • Masoud Mashhadi Akbar Boojar 3
  • Ali Mokhtassi Bidgoli 2
1 Department of Agronomy, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Biology Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of water deficit stress, nitrogen fertilizer and zeolite on growth parameters, biomass and seed yield of fenugreek. A split factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the Research Field of Tarbiat Modares University in 2014 and 2015. Five irrigation regimes (unstressed, mild stresses during the vegetative and reproductive stages, respectively; severe stresses during the vegetative and reproductive stages, respectively) were randomized to the main plots. Subplots consisted of six treatments of a factorial combination of three levels of nitrogen fertilizations (untreated plots, vermicompost fertilizer at a rate of 2.7 t.ha-1 and nitrogen chemical fertilizer at a rate of 11 kg.ha-1) and two rates of zeolite (0 and 9 t.ha-1). In both years, increasing severity of water deficiet stresses reduced leaf area index, crop growth rate, plant height, biological and seed yield of fenugreek; Thus, severe water deficit stress at the reproductive stage without fertilizer and zeolite (with the least amount of biological and grain yield) compared with that of control, caused 60.96 and 48.09 percent reduction in biological yield and 80.18 and 75.62 percent reduction in grain yield, in both years, respectively. Application of nitrogen fertilizer, especially vermicompost, resulted in a significant increase in the leaf area index, crop growth rate of fenugreek in various stages of development, thereby increased biological and grain yield in different irrigation regimes. In various irrigation regimes, higher leaf area index, crop growth rate and finally more yield produced with application of vermicompost or zeolite.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • CGR
  • Drought stress
  • Chemical Fertilizer
  • LAI
  • vermicompost
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