بررسی جذب و کارآیی مصرف نور در کشت مخلوط ارزن معمولی و سویا تحت تنش کمبود آب

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

2 دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر تنش کمبود آب بر سطح برگ، کارآیی مصرف نور و ماده خشک سویا (Glycine max L.) و ارزن (Panicum miliaceum L.) در کشت مخلوط، آزمایشی در سال 1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشـاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی ‌سینای همدان به­صـورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تنش کمبود آب در سه سطح (آبیاری پس از 60، 90 و 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر آب از تشتک تبخیر) به عنوان عامل اصلی و الگوی کاشت جایگزینی در پنج سطح (تک‌کشتی سویا (100S)، تک‌کشتی ارزن (100M)، کشت مخلوط جایگزینی 33 درصد سویا+ 67 درصد ارزن (33S:67M)، 50 درصد سویا+ 50 درصد ارزن (50S:50M) و 67 درصد سویا+ 33 درصد ارزن (67S:33M) به­عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد، بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ سویا و ارزن به­ترتیب به میزان 68/5 و 23/3 در تک‌کشتی آنها به‌دست آمد. تنش شدید کمبود آب شاخص سطح برگ سویا و ارزن را به­ترتیب 03/33 و 33/33 درصد نسبت به عدم تنش کاهش داد. بالاترین ماده خشک در تک‌کشتی سویا و ارزن به­ترتیب به مقدار 613 و 540 گرم بر مترمربع، حاصل شد. تنش شدید کمبود آب ماده خشک سویا و ارزن را به­ترتیب 87/39 و 56/31 درصد نسبت به شاهد کاهش داد. کارآیی مصرف نور ارزن در الگوهای کشت مخلوط (33S:67M)، (50S:50M) و (67S:33M) به­ترتیب 85/24، 86/29 و 76/26 درصد بیشتر از کشت خالص ارزن بود. در حالی که، کارآیی مصرف نور سویا در کشت مخلوط کاهش یافت و میانگین آن در طول فصل رشد از 97/0 گرم بر مگاژول در نسبت (33S:67M) تا 77/1 گرم بر مگاژول در تیمار کشت خالص سویا متغیر بود. نتایج نشان داد تنش کمبود آب تأثیر منفی بر کارآیی مصرف نور ارزن و سویا داشت

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Light Radiation Absorption and Its Use Efficiency in Intercropping of Soybean and Millet Under Water Deficit Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayeh Hajinia 1
  • Goudarz Ahmadvand 2
1 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bu Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran
2 Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of water deficit stress on leaf area, radiation use efficiency and dry matter production of soybean and millet in intercropping, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out, in 2015 at the Research Station of Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University. The main factor consisted of three levels of water deficit stresses (irrigation after 60, 90 and 120 mm evaporation from pan) and sub factor of five replacement intercropping treatments sol cropping of soybean (100S), sol cropping of millet (100M), 67 % S+ 33 % M (67S:33M), 50 % S+ 50 % M (50S:50M) and 33 % S+ 67 % M (33S:67M). The results showed that the highest leaf area index of soybean and millet in sol cropping were 5.68 and 3.23 respectively. Severe water deficit stress significantly decreased leaf area index of soybean and millet by about 30.03 and 30.33 percent, respectively, as compared to well-watered condition. The highest dry matter (613 and 540 g.m-2) belonged to sol cropping of soybean and millet, respectively. Severe water deficit stress reduced dry matter of soybean and millet by 39.87 and 31.556 percent respectively as compared to the control. Radiation use efficiency of millet in (33S:67M), (50S:50M) and (67S:33M) intercropping ratios were 24.85, 29.86 and 26.76 percent more than sol cropping of millet, respectively. Radiation use efficiency of soybean reduced in the intercropping. Mean radiation use efficiency of soybean in growing season ranged from 0.97 g.mj-1 in the (33S:67M) ratio to 1.77 g.mj-1 in the sol cropping of soybean. The results showed a negative effect of water deficit stress on radiation use efficiency of both millet and soybean.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Absorption of radiation
  • dry matter
  • Intercropping
  • leaf area
  • Water deficit stress
  • · Akmal, M., and M.J. Janssens. 2004. Productivity and light use efficiency of perennial ryegrass with contrasting water and nitrogen supplies. Field Crop Research. 88: 143-155.
  • · Alizadeh, A. 2001. Drought and necessity of increase in water productivity. Quarterly Science-Extension of Aridity and Agricultural Drought. 2: 3-8.
  • · Anjum, S.A., X. Xie, L. Wang, M.F. Saleem, C. Man, and W. Lei. 2011. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. African Journal Agriculture Research. 6(9): 2026-2032.
  • · Araus, J.L., J. Bort, P. Steduto, D. Villegas, and C. Royo. 2003. Breeding cereals for Mediterranean conditions: Ecophysiological clues for biotechnology application. Annual Applied Biology. 142: 129-141.
  • · Awal, M.A., H. Koshi, and T. Ikeda. 2006. Radiation interception and use by maize/peanut intercrop canopy. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 139: 74-83.
  • · Azizi, A., A. Koocheki, P. Rezvani Moghaddam, and M. Nassiri Mahallati. 2015. Evaluation of nutrient resource and crop diversity interaction on radiation use efficiency in different cropping systems. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 12(4): 58-70. (In Persian).n
  • · Bat-Oyun, T.M. Shinoda, and M. Tsubo. 2011. Effects of water and temperature stresses on radiation use efficiency in a semi-arid grassland. Journal Plant Interaction. 7: 214-224.
  • · Cakir, R. 2004. Effect of water stress at different development stages on vegetative and reproductive growth of corn. Field Crops Reserch. 89: 1-16.
  • · Caviglia, O.P., V.O. Sadras, and F.H. Andrade. 2004. Intensification of agriculture in the south-eastern Pampas I. Capture and efficiency in the use of water and radiation in double-cropped wheat-soybean. Field Crop Research. 87: 117-129. 
  • · Ceotto, E., and F. Castelli. 2002. Radiation use efficiency in flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.): response to nitrogen supply, climatic variability and sink limitation. Field Crops Research. 74:117-130.
  • · Collino, D.J., J.L. Dardanelli, R. Sereno, and R.W. Racca. 2001. Physiological responses of argentine varieties to water stress, light interception, radiation use efficiency and partitioning of assimilate. Field Crops Reserch.70: 177-184.
  • · Daneshian, J., P. Jonoubi, and D. Barari Tari. 2011. Investigation of water deficit stress on agronomical traits of soybean cultivars in temperate climate. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. 75: 778-785.
  • · Ezzat Ahmadi, M., G. Noor Mohammadi, M. Moghaddasi, and M. Kafi. 2012. Evaluation of radiation and water use efficiency in bread wheat genotypes in condition of different photosynthetic and moisture stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 10(1): 225-239. (In Persian).n
  • · Garofalo, P., and M. Rinaldi. 2015. Leaf as exchange and radiation use efficiency of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in response to different deficit irrigation strategies: From solar radiation to plant growth analysis. European Journalof Agronomy. 64: 88-97.
  • · Ghosh, P.K. 2004. Growth, yield, competition and economics of groundnut/cereal fodder intercropping systems in the semi-arid tropics of India. Field Crops Research. 88: 227-237.
  • · Goudriaan, J., and H.H. van Laar. 1994. Modelling potential crop growth processes. Kluwer Academic Press.
  • · Heatherly, L.G., and J.R. Smith. 2004. Effect of soybean stem growth habit on height and node number after beginning bloom in the mid southern USA. Crop Science. 44: 1855-1858.
  • · Jahansooz, M.R., I.A.M. Yunusa, D.R. Coventry, A.R. Palmer, and D. Eamus. 2007. Radiation- and water-use associated with growth and yields of wheat and chickpea in sole and mixed crops. European Journal of Agronomy. 26: 275-282.    
  • · Kazemi Arbat, H. 2007. Private agronomy. First Volume: Cereals. Center Publication University. 315 pp. (In Persian).
  • · Khajehpour, M.R. 2004. Industrial plants. Isfahan University of Technology. 571 pp. (In Persian).
  • · Li, H.L., Y. Luo, and J.H. Ma. 2011. Radiation‑use efficiency and the harvest index of winter wheat at different nitrogen levels and their relationships to canopy spectral relectance. Crop Pasture Scince. 62:208-217.
  • · Maffei, M., and A. Mucciarelli. 2003. Essential oil yield in peppermint/soybean strip intercropping. Field Crops Research. 84: 229-240. 
  • · Monteith, J.L. 1977. Solar radiation and productivity in tropical ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology. 9: 747-766.
  • · Monteith, J.L. 1994. Principles of resource capture by crops stands. In: Resource Capture by Crops. Monteith, J.L., R.K. Scott, and M.U. Unsworth (eds.). pp 1-15. Nottingham University Press, Loughborough, UK.
  • · Morgado, L.B., and R.W. Willey. 2003. Effects of plant population and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and efficiency of maize-bean intercropping. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 38: 1257-1264.
  • · Muchow, R.C. 1985. An analysis of the efects of water deicits on grain legumes grown in a semi‑arid tropical environ‑ment in terms of radiation interception and its eiciency of use. Field Crops Reserch. 11:309-323.
  • · Muchow, R.C., M.J. Robertson, and B.C. Pengelly. 1993. Radiation use efficiency of soybean, mung bean and cowpea under different environmental conditions. Field Crops Research. 32: 1-16.
  • · Nachigera, G.M., J.F. Ledent, and X. Draye. 2010. Shoot and root Competition in potato maize intercropping: effects on growth and yield. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 22: 118-129.
  • · Ngugi, K., J.O. Collins, and S. Muchira. 2013. Combining, earliness, short anthesis to silking interval and yield based selection indices under intermittent water stress to select for drought tolerant maize. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 7: 2014-2020.
  • · Oraki, H., F. Parhizkar Khanjani, and M. Aghaalikhna. 2012. Effect of water deficit stress on proline contents, soluble sugars, chlorophyll and grain yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids. African Journal Biotechnology. 11: 164-168.
  • · Osborne, S.L., J.S. Scheppers, D.D. Francis, and M.R. Schlemmer. 2002. Use of spectral Radiance to in-season biomass and grain yield in nitrogen and water-stressed corn. Crop Science. 42: 165-171.
  • · Pandita, A.K., M.H. Saha, and A.S. Bali. 2000. Effect of row ratio in cereal- legume intercropping systems on productivity and competition functions under Kashmir condition. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 45: 48-53.
  • · Reddy, A.R., K.V. Chaitanya, and M. Vivekanandan, 2004.Drought induced responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants. Journal Plant Physiology. 161: 1189-1202.
  • · Rinaldi, M., and P. Garofalo. 2011. Radiation‑use efficiency of irrigated biomass sorghum in a Mediterranean environment. Crop Pasture Science. 62:830-839.
  • · Rodrigo, V.H.L., C.M. Stirling, Z. Teklehaimanot, and A. Nugawela. 2001. Intercropping with banana to improve fractional interception and radiation-use efficiency of immature rubber plantations. Field Crops Research. 69: 237-249.
  • · Shahbaghi, M., A. Valadabadi, J. Daneshiyan, A.H. ShiraniRad, and S. Seyfzadeh. 2017. Valuation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of corn and grass pea as affected by organic, chemical and biofertilizers. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 11(2): 363-382. (In Persian).  
    • · Singer, J.W., T.S. Sauer, B.C. Blaser, and D.W. Meek. 2007. Radiation use efficiency in dula winter cereal forage production systems. American Society of Agronomy. 99: 1175-1179.
    • · Tabarzad, A., A.A. Ghaemi, and S. Zand-Parsa. 2016. Extinction coefficients and radiation use efficiency of barley under different, irrigation regimes and sowing dates. Agricultural Water Management. 178: 126-136.
    • · Tesfaye, K., S. Walkerb, and M. Tsubob. 2006. Radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of three grain legumes under water deficit conditions in a semi-arid environment. European Journalof Agronomy. 25: 60-70.
    • · Tsubo, M., and S. Walker. 2002. A model of radiation interception and use by a maize/bean intercrop canopy. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 110: 203-215.
    • · Tsubo, M., S. Walker, and E. Mukhala. 2001. Comparison of radiation use efficiency of monoculture and intercropping systems with different row orientations. Field Crops Research. 71: 17-29.
    • · Tsubo, M.S. Walker, and H.O. Ogindo. 2005. A simulation model of cereal legume intercropping systems for semi-arid regions I. Model development. Field Crops Research. 93: 10-22.
    • · Xu, Z., and G. Zhou. 2008. Responses of leaf stomatal density to water status and its relationship with photosynthesis in a grass. Journal of Experimental Botany. 59: 3317-3325.
    • · Yousef Nia, M., M, Banayan Aval, and S. Khorramdel. 2015. Evaluation of radiation use and interception of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) intercropping canopy. Journal of Agroecology. 7(3): 412-424. (In Persian).n
    • Zhang, L., W. Vander Werf, L. Bastiaans, S. Zhang, B. Li, and J.H. Spiertz. 2008. Light interception and utilization in relay intercrops of wheat and cotton. Field Crops Research.107:29-42.