واکنش عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد نخود زراعی (Cicer arietinum L.) به کاربرد باکتری‌های افزاینده رشد گیاه و کود شیمیایی‌نیتروژن در شرایط دیم

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان ایلام، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ایلام، ایران.

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

3 مربی، گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران.

4 باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد آیت الله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،آمل، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر باکتری­های افزاینده رشد بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد چهار رقم نخود در شرایط دیم ایلام، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 94-1393 در ایستگاه مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی سرابله اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل چهار رقم نخود (هاشم، آزاد و آرمان و یک توده محلی) و مخلوط باکتری­های افزاینده رشد و کود شیمیایی نیتروژن شامل: 1- عدم مصرف باکتری­های افزاینده رشد و کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، 2- 10 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن، 3- 20 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن، 4- آزوسپیریلوم برازیلنس+عدم مصرف کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، 5- آزوسپیریلوم برازیلنس+10 کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، 6- آزوسپیریلوم برازیلنس+20 کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، 7- ازتوباکتر کروکوم+عدم مصرف کود شیمیایی نیتروژن، 8- ازتوباکتر کروکوم+10 کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و 9- ازتوباکتر کروکوم+20 کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن در نظر گرفته شدند. اثر برهمکنش رقم در باکتری­های افزاینده رشد مختلف بر تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته، وزن صد دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، ارتفاع بوته و پروتئین دانه و معنی‌دار بود به­طوری­که واکنش ارقام تلقیح شده با ازتوباکتر و آزوسپیریلوم معنی­دار و استفاده از این باکتری­های افزاینده رشد موجب افزایش تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه گردید. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در رقم آزاد و تلقیح با آزوسپیریلوم + 10 کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن با میانگین 1533 کیلوگرم در هکتار و کمترین عملکرد دانه در رقم محلی و عدم تلقیح با میانگین 529 کیلوگرم در هکتار به­دست آمد که نسبت به تیمار شاهد 5/65 درصد افزایش نشان داد. در این پ‍ژوهش ارقام هاشم و آزاد واکنش بهتری به آزوسپیریلوم و ارقام آرمان و محلی واکنش بهتری به ازتوباکتر از خود نشان دادند. با توجه به نتایج به­دست آمده در این پژوهش، رقم آزاد نخود و تلقیح آن با آزوسپیریلوم + 10 کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن جهت حصول حداکثر عملکرد در شرایط دیم و مناطق مشابه می­تواند مد نظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reaspose of Yield and Yield Components of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars to the Application of Plant Growth Promoting RhizohBacteria and Nitrogen Chemical Fertilizer under Rainfed Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Mirzaei 1
  • Rahim Naseri 2
  • Seyed Mohammad Torab Miri 2
  • Abbas Soleymani Fard 3
  • Amin Fathi 4
1 Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ilam, Iran.
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.
3 Instructor, Department of Agricultural Science, Payame Noor University, Iran.
4 Young Researchers and Elite Club, AyatollahAmoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To study the effects of plant growth promoting rhizohacteria on yield and yield components of four chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars in Ilam region under rainfed conditions, a field experiment was conducted using factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Center of Ilam during 2014-2015 cropping seasons. Cultivars under study were Azad, Hashem, Arman and an ecotype. Treatments were plant growth promoting rhizohacteria (without inoculation, 10 kg nitrogen fertilizer, 20 kg nitrogen fertilizer, Azospirillum brasilense+without nitrogen fertilizer, Azospirillum brasilense+10 kg nitrogen fertilizer, Azospirillum brasilense+20 kg nitrogen fertilizer, Azotobacter chrococcum, without nitrogen fertilizer, Azotobacter chrococcum+10 kg nitrogen fertilizer, Azotobacter chrococcum+20 kg nitrogen fertilizer. The interaction effect of cultivar×plant growth promoting rhizohacteria (PGPR) were significant on pods per plant, seed per pod, 100-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, plant height and protein content; Thus, application of chemical fertilizer and PGPR in these cultivars increased all traits under study. The highest mean seed yield of 1533 kg.ha-1 was obtained from interaction effect of Azad cultivars×Azospirillum+10 kg nitrogen fertilizer and lowest grain yield with mean yield of 529 kg.ha-1 observed from interaction effect of ecotype×without inoculation that increased 65.5% to check treatment.  Inoculation with Azesperilluim was found to be more effective in Azad and Hashem cultivars and inoculation with Azotobacter was found to be more effective in Arman cultivar and ecotype. According to the results obtained from this study, Azad cultivar and inoculation with Azospirillum+10 kg nitrogen fertilizer produced highest sedd yield under rainfed condition of Ilam Agricultural Research Center.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Plant Growth Promoting Rhizohacteria
  • Rainfed conditions
  • Grain yield
  • Chickpea
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