مقایسه عملکرد و شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک رشد و نمو ارقام کنجد در شرایط استفاده از منابع کودهای شیمیایی و بیولوژیک پتاسیم

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اراک

2 عضو هیات علمی گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهرقدس، تهران، ایران.

3 کارشناس زراعت سازمان کشاورزی استان مرکزی، اراک، ایران.

چکیده

این پژوهش به­منظور مقایسه عملکرد دانه و شاخص­های مختلف فیزیولوژیک رشد و نمو سه رقم کنجد بومی ایران در پاسخ به استفاده از منابع کود شیمیایی سولفات پتاسیم و کود بیولوژیک پتاس در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اراک انجام شد. آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار اجرا گردید. فاکتور کود پتاسیم شامل چهار سطح کاربرد کود شیمیایی سولفات پتاسیم بر اساس آزمون خاک به­عنوان شاهد، کاربرد کود بیولوژیک باکتریایی Bacillus circulans L.، باکتری Bacillus megatherium L. و ترکیب هر دو گونه باکتری و فاکتور ارقام کنجد شامل سه رقم اولتان، یکتا و دشتستان 2 بودند. نمونه­برداری­ها به­صورت تخریبی از 30 روز تا 105روز پس از کاشت با فواصل هر 15روز یک­بار انجام پذیرفت. محاسبه میزان شاخص سطح برگ و وزن خشک بوته نیز برای هر مرحله از نمونه­برداری انجام و محاسبه میزان سرعت رشد گیاه، میزان جذب خالص و سرعت رشد نسبی گیاه تعیین گردیدند. نتایج نشان داد که رقم یکتا با میانگین 62/18گرم در بوته بالاترین عملکرد دانه را تولید کرد و رقم اولتان از نظر سرعت رشد برتری نسبی خود را نشان داد. رقم اولتان نسبت به رقم یکتا عملکرد دانه کمتری تولید نمود. این رقم همچنین، از نظر روند رشد و نمو نسبت به دو رقم یکتا و دشتستان کاملاً متفاوت بود. از طرف دیگر واکنش ارقام کنجد نسبت به کاربرد باکتری­های محلول کننده پتاسیم کاملاً مغایر بود به­طوری­که، باکتری Bacillus circulans L. بیشترین تغییرات را در تولید دانه نشان داد. در این بررسی استفاده از پتاسیم توانست تا 90 روز پس از کاشت سرعت رشد کنجد را تحریک کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Yield Comparison of Sesame Cultivars and Their Physiological Growth Indices Under Chemical and Biological Potassium Fertilizer Applications

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Madani 1
  • Behzad Sani 2
  • Hamid Golipour 3
1 Associate Professor of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran.
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Shahr-e- Gods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Jahad-e-Keshavarzi Organization, Markazi Province, Arak, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To compare the yield and physiological growth indices of three Iranian sesame cultivars under the application of chemical and biological potassium fertilizers a pot experiment was conducted in the summer of 2015 in greenhouse. This study was performed as factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The potassium fertilizer application, based on soil test, was in four levels (K1:K2SO4 50%, K2: Bacillus circulans L., K3: Bacillus megatherium L. and K4: KSB1+KSB2 and three sesame cultivars used were Ultan, Yekta and Dashtestan 2. The plant samples were taken from 30 to 105 days after sowing with 15 days intervals. LAI, TDM, CGR, NAR and RGR were measured during the different growth stages. The results showed that the Yekta cultivar produced the highest seed yield (18.62 g.plant-1). Ultan produced highest growth rate as compared to the other cultivars. Furthermore, it responded differently to the application of biologic KSB1 fertilizer as compared to the other treatments and cultivars. KSB1 improved and accelerated plant growth rate at 90 days after sowing. While, the use of chemical potassium sulfate, KSB2 and combined application of Bacillus circulans L. with KSB1 and 2 improved growth 105 days after sowing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • leaf area index
  • Net assimilation rate
  • crop growth rate
  • Relative growth rate
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