مایه زنی قارچهای Piriformospora indica و Trichoderma virens جهت بهبود صفات مورفولوژیکی و فیزیولوژیکی مرتبط با عملکرد برنج در مقادیر مختلف کود فسفر

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان - دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 دکتری زراعت، پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

چکیده

حفظ محیط‌زیست و تولید محصولات کشاورزی سالم از اهداف کشاورزی پایدار می‌باشد. در این زمینه، استفاده از ریزجانداران افزاینده رشد جهت کاهش نهاده‌های شیمیایی می‌تواند مفید باشد. بنابراین، آزمایشی به‌صورت طرح کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط مزرعه زارعین در شهرستان قائم‌شهر، استان مازندران، در سال 1394 انجام شد. تیمارهای مورد بررسی شامل سه سطح کود فسفر (صفر (شاهد)، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار از منبع سوپر‌فسفات ‌تریپل) و روش مایه‌زنی توأم قارچ‌های T. virens و P. indica در چهار سطح (شاهد، تلقیح بذر، تلقیح نشاء و تلقیح توأم بذر و نشاء) بودند. نتایج آزمایش حاکی از تأثیر مثبت و معنی‌دار قارچ‌ها بر صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیک و عملکرد شلتوک گیاه برنج در هر سه سطح کودی بود. برای نمونه در شرایط کود فسفر صفر، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار، مایه‌زنی به روش تلقیح بذر باعث افزایش معنی‎دار تعداد خوشه در بوته (به‌ترتیب حدود 33، 19 و 40 درصد)، تعداد دانه پر در بوته (به‌ترتیب حدود 21، 45 و 58 درصد)، عملکرد بیولوژیک (به‌ترتیب حدود 31، 6 و 18 درصد) و عملکرد شلتوک (به‎ترتیب حدود 37، 48 و 43 درصد) گیاه برنج شد. مایه‌زنی قارچ‌ها با روش‌های تلقیح بذر، تلقیح گیاهچه و تلقیح توأم بذر و نشاء نیز عملکرد شلتوک را به‌ترتیب حدود 48، 53 و 53 درصد در سطح فسفر 50 و حدود 43، 44 و 15 درصد در شرایط مصرف 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار افزایش داد. به‌طور‌ کلی، نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که هر سه روش مایه‌زنی قارچ‌ها در سطوح صفر، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود فسفر مصرفی، باعث بهبود عملکرد شلتوک برنج شدند، که می‌توان علت این نتیجه را با بهبود صفات مورد بررسی از جمله تعداد خوشه در بوته و عملکرد بیولوژیک مرتبط دانست. درمجموع، کاربرد هم‌زمان ریزجانداران مورد مطالعه و کود شیمیایی فسفر اثر افزایشی بیشتری نسبت به کاربرد جداگانه کود شیمیایی فسفر به‌همراه داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Inoculation with Trichoderma virens and Piriformospora indica for Improving the Morphological and Physiological Traits Related to Grain Yield of Rice under Different Rates of Phosphorus Fertilizer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Faezeh Mohammadi Kashka 1
  • Hemmatollah Pirdashti 2
  • Yasser Yaghoubian 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan and Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
3 Department of Plant Molecular Physiology, Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan and Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Environmental protection and safity of agricultural products are two major goals in sustainable agriculture. Hence, using plant growth promoting rhizobacteria may be effective to reduce chemical inputs. Therefore, a field split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) was conducted at Ghaemshahr, Mazandaran Province in 2015. Treatments were consisted of three levels of phosphorus (P) fertilizer (0 or control, 50 and 100 kg.ha-1 as triple super phosphate) and coinoculation of rice seed and seedling with Trichoderma virens and Piriformospora indica fungi with four levels (uninoculated control, inoculation of seed or seedlings and seed + seedlings inoculation). Results indicated that inoculation with these fungi significantly and positively affected the morpho-physiological traits and paddy yield of rice plant in all P levels. When, 0, 50 and 100 kg.ha-1 was applied, seed inoculation resulted in significant increase of panicle number per plant (33, 19 and 40 percent, respectively), filled seeds per plant (21, 45 and 58 percent, respectively), biological yield (31, 6 and 18 percent, respectively) and paddy yield (37, 48 and 43 percent, respectively). Also, fungi inoculation of rice seeds, seedlings and seeds + seedlings improved paddy yield up to 48, 53 and 53 percent and 43, 44 and 15 percent when 50 and 100 kg.ha-1 of P was applied, respectively. In general, results indicated that all three methods of fungi inoculation had positive effect on rice plants under all P levels, which could be related to those fungi ability to improving the parameters under study such as panicle number per plant and biological yield. In conclusion, the positive effects of using both microorganisms and P were more pronounced than using P alone.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological yield
  • Chlorophyll
  • Mycorrhizae like
  • Paddy yield
  • Tarom Hashemi
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